Institutional and Governance Review

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Managing Afghanistan’s Rangelands and Forest Resources: An Assessment of Institutional and Technical Capacity Constraints

2018-06, World Bank

Afghanistan has been in conflict and internal turmoil since the early 1970s, which has resulted in loss of life, insecurity, ethnic division, and wide-spread damage to the environment and natural resources. As citizens of one of the poorest nations in the world with an increasing poverty level that reached 55 percent in 2016-2017, 80 percent of Afghans depend on natural resources for their daily subsistence. Fodder for livestock, fuel wood for heating and cooking, water for agriculture and consumption, medicinal plants and wildlife provide scarce means for survival and limited trade. The government of Afghanistan is giving agriculture and natural resource management utmost priority for development. Current policies link natural resources management to private sector development, justice sector reform (land administration), agriculture development, mineral and resource development, and human capital development programs. This World Bank paper that highlights the importance of the rangelands and forest resources for the country’s sustainable development. The paper explains the status and role of rangelands and forest resources for the country’s mostly rural population. It describes the importance of the sector for boosting agricultural productivity, addressing climate change and weather- related natural disasters, and contributing to rural jobs creation. It further offers some recommendations on how to revitalize the natural resources management sector that is critically important in the context of rural development and Afghanistan’s economy, and is yet often overlooked and broadly neglected.

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Devolution in Pakistan : An Assessment and Recommendations for Action

2004-09-01, World Bank

The Devolved Service Delivery Study (DSD) is the product of an agreement between the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, and the Department for International Development (the United Kingdom), in response to a request from the Government of Pakistan that the agencies review progress toward improving service delivery through decentralization. Pakistan's far-reaching devolution initiative has been designed with three broad and inter-related objectives in mind: To inject new blood into a political system considered to be the domain of historically entrenched interests; to provide positive measures enabling marginalized citizens--women, workers, peasants-to access formal politics; and to introduce a measure of stability into a turbulent political scene by creating a stronger line of accountability between new politicians and local electorates. Underpinning the political strategy were other technical objectives: improved delivery of social services; better determination and enforcement of property and labor rights and regulation of economic activities; and access to justice in the form of improved performance by local administrations, courts and police, with greater awareness of basic human rights protected under devolution. Based on an empirical study of 6 districts and 12 municipalities (Tehsil Municipal Administrations) (TMAs), this paper evaluates the extent to which the new structure has succeeded in creating the incentives necessary for local governments to achieve at least some of the service delivery objectives. This report notes that remarkable progress has been achieved. New local institutions with new structures for local government, new arrangements for intergovernmental sharing of resources, new electoral arrangements, new rules for government formation and dismissal and new opportunities for citizens to participate in the affairs of government have all been created. At the same time as the devolution initiative was being implemented, the government also implemented significant reforms in tax, trade, deregulation and privatization, the banking sector, anticorruption, restructuring federal and provincial legislatures and responding to gender concerns.

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Devolution in Pakistan : Annex 2. Technical Considerations

2004-09-01, World Bank

The Devolved Service Delivery Study (DSD) is the product of an agreement between the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, and the Department for International Development (the United Kingdom), in response to a request from the Government of Pakistan that the agencies review progress toward improving service delivery through decentralization. Pakistan's far-reaching devolution initiative has been designed with three broad and inter-related objectives in mind: To inject new blood into a political system considered to be the domain of historically entrenched interests; to provide positive measures enabling marginalized citizens--women, workers, peasants-to access formal politics; and to introduce a measure of stability into a turbulent political scene by creating a stronger line of accountability between new politicians and local electorates. Underpinning the political strategy were other technical objectives: improved delivery of social services; better determination and enforcement of property and labor rights and regulation of economic activities; and access to justice in the form of improved performance by local administrations, courts and police, with greater awareness of basic human rights protected under devolution. Based on an empirical study of 6 districts and 12 municipalities (Tehsil Municipal Administrations) (TMAs), this paper evaluates the extent to which the new structure has succeeded in creating the incentives necessary for local governments to achieve at least some of the service delivery objectives. This report notes that remarkable progress has been achieved. New local institutions with new structures for local government, new arrangements for intergovernmental sharing of resources, new electoral arrangements, new rules for government formation and dismissal and new opportunities for citizens to participate in the affairs of government have all been created. At the same time as the devolution initiative was being implemented, the government also implemented significant reforms in tax, trade, deregulation and privatization, the banking sector, anticorruption, restructuring federal and provincial legislatures and responding to gender concerns.

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Devolution in Pakistan : Annex 1. Recent History

2004-09-01, World Bank

The Devolved Service Delivery Study (DSD) is the product of an agreement between the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, and the Department for International Development (the United Kingdom), in response to a request from the Government of Pakistan that the agencies review progress toward improving service delivery through decentralization. Pakistan's far-reaching devolution initiative has been designed with three broad and inter-related objectives in mind: To inject new blood into a political system considered to be the domain of historically entrenched interests; to provide positive measures enabling marginalized citizens--women, workers, peasants-to access formal politics; and to introduce a measure of stability into a turbulent political scene by creating a stronger line of accountability between new politicians and local electorates. Underpinning the political strategy were other technical objectives: improved delivery of social services; better determination and enforcement of property and labor rights and regulation of economic activities; and access to justice in the form of improved performance by local administrations, courts and police, with greater awareness of basic human rights protected under devolution. Based on an empirical study of 6 districts and 12 municipalities (Tehsil Municipal Administrations) (TMAs), this paper evaluates the extent to which the new structure has succeeded in creating the incentives necessary for local governments to achieve at least some of the service delivery objectives. This report notes that remarkable progress has been achieved. New local institutions with new structures for local government, new arrangements for intergovernmental sharing of resources, new electoral arrangements, new rules for government formation and dismissal and new opportunities for citizens to participate in the affairs of government have all been created. At the same time as the devolution initiative was being implemented, the government also implemented significant reforms in tax, trade, deregulation and privatization, the banking sector, anticorruption, restructuring federal and provincial legislatures and responding to gender concerns.