Institutional and Governance Review

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  • Publication
    Building Institutional Capacity for Implementing the National Climate Change Strategy in Romania
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-11) World Bank Group
    Romania has already been affected by climate change. The IPCC projections indicate that the climate will warm up over this century at least in line with global projections and precipitation patterns will shift so as to make winters wetter and summers drier. Already, in 2007, Romania experienced the warmest year in two decades (average temperature 11.5° C against a 25 year average of 8.4° C) and the most severe drought in the last 60 years while in 2005 there were historic floods, which caused 76 deaths and significant property damage. The effects of these extreme weather events adversely affected the country through significant economic loss in agriculture, transport, energy supply, and water management. Consequently, mitigation and adaptation to climate change are increasingly important priorities for Romania. After the introduction chapter, the current situation as well as the CC commitments that Romania has undertaken are presented in chapter two. Chapter three provides the possible good practices that could provide inspiration for further reform. A contrast of the commitments with the current capacity and the available good practices has been substantiated in the analyses of capacity gaps that need to be addressed in chapter four. The next chapter provides the avenues for breaching those gaps and sustainably building CC capacity in order to ensure the smooth implementation of the strategy. Project management and financing is treated separately in chapter six since it has been an issue of particular concern and difficulty for the GoR. Finally, chapter seven sets out the basic elements of a public engagement campaign that will be essential for making CC a national issue present in the awareness of the public authorities, civil society and general public alike. A comprehensive list of the proposed measures and their time horizons can be found in annex one.
  • Publication
    “Governance in the Protection of Immovable Property Rights in Albania: A Continuing Challenge” : A World Bank Issue Brief - Second Edition
    (Washington, DC, 2012-04) World Bank
    Despite several attempts at reform, immovable property rights in Albania are not adequately secure and represent an important governance challenge. Problems have resulted from incomplete first title registration, the lack of accurate cadastral records, and, in many cases, the absence of reliable evidence of ownership. Although Albania has adopted legislation calling for restitution or compensation for owners whose property was expropriated under communism, implementation is incomplete. In Albania, rapid internal migration has resulted in informal occupation of land and unauthorized construction on a mass scale, thus compounding the problems associated with the incomplete transfer of property. During the 1990s, as much as one-third of the population of some northern and mountainous regions migrated to urban, peri-urban, and coastal areas in search of income generation opportunities, despite the lack of adequate housing infrastructure or public service provision. Internal migration continues, albeit at a slower pace. Gaps in territorial planning legislation and administrative failures in the issuance of construction permits have made it difficult to obtain an appropriate construction permit, even when occupiers have legal title to the land. State authorities have largely failed to prevent new illegal occupation of land and illegal construction, and it is estimated that up to one-third of all buildings in Albania are illegal due to the occupier's lack of clear title and/or appropriate construction permit. This review of immovable property rights in Albania draws primarily upon this definition, which takes into account the popular legitimacy of state institutions and respect for the law among citizens and government institutions the softer aspects of governance that are essential to understanding how policies are made and implemented in practice and how public resources are used.
  • Publication
    Republic of Belarus : Corruption Vulnerability Scan
    (Washington, DC, 2007-05-23) World Bank
    The Corruption Vulnerability Scan (CVS) is an internal Bank document aimed at providing a better understanding on the Bank's vulnerability in extending assistance to Belarus, and making suggestions as to how to reduce risks in the use of Bank funds, while improving results on the ground. The CVS team visited Belarus in March 2007. Its main conclusion is that the vulnerability to corruption of Bank funds and activities funded from loan proceeds in Belarus is low, as long as Bank fiduciary procedures are used and implementation is closely supervised. The report is in three parts: Corruption and Anti-Corruption in Belarus, Public Finance Management and the Bank Portfolio.