Institutional and Governance Review

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    CPIA Africa, October 2022: Assessing Africa’s Policies and Institutions
    (Washington, DC, 2022-10) World Bank
    The Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) Africa 2022 report provides an assessment of the quality of policies and institutions for the calendar year 2021 in all 39 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa that are International Development Association (IDA)–eligible. The overall average score for these countries remained unchanged from the previous year at 3.1. Similarly, no changes were observed at the subregional level, where average scores were unchanged at 3.2 and 3.0 for West and Central Africa and East and Southern Africa, respectively. However, at the country level, the overall CPIA scores changed in 11 countries, including an increase in seven countries and a decline in four. Among the countries that increased their CPIA scores, nearly 70 percent has done it on account of better policies for social inclusion and equity. Among the four countries with decreased CPIA scores, three are assessed with weakened performance in macroeconomic management. Countries with below average scores (under 3.0) are mostly fragile and conflict-affected cases. Section 1 of this report evaluates the impact of the pandemic on economic performance in Sub-Saharan Africa’s IDA-eligible countries, particularly focusing on key macroeconomic outcomes. Section 2 of the report presents the CPIA assessment results by clusters, by criteria, as well as by countries, while distinguishing between fragile and non-fragile countries. Section 3 provides the individual country CPIA pages.
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    Actionable Regulatory Governance Indicators for UE Regions
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-06-13) World Bank
    The European Union’s Cohesion Policy is its biggest investment instrument. It supports the Europe 2020 strategy of smart, sustainable, and inclusive growth. With a budget of €351.8 billion for 2014–2020, the Cohesion Policy accounts for around one-third of the EU budget. The Cohesion Policy is primarily implemented through investments in EU regions and cities. Local and regional governments in the EU are responsible for more than half of all public investment. There is a growing focus on the importance of good governance to ensure effective implementation. The European Commission’s 6th Cohesion Policy report notes that governance problems not only delay the implementation of Cohesion Policy programs but also reduce the impact of these investments. The report states: ‘a lower standard of governance can affect the impact of Cohesion Policy both directly and indirectly. In the first place, it can reduce expenditure if programs fail to invest all the funding available. Secondly, it can lead to a less coherent or appropriate strategy for a country or region. Thirdly, it may lead to lower quality projects being selected for funding or to the best projects not applying for support at all. Fourthly, it may result in a lower leverage effect because the private sector is less willing to co-finance investment.’ The purpose of this report is to develop and test a set of actionable indicators for the regulatory frameworks of EU regions. Deregulatory measures focusing on ‘fixing broken regulations’ are a necessary and important element of investment climate reforms. However, gains from one-off initiatives aimed at cutting costs and procedures are often reversed if the responsible institutions, tools, and incentives are not changed.