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Managing Afghanistan’s Rangelands and Forest Resources: An Assessment of Institutional and Technical Capacity Constraints(World Bank, Kabul, 2018-06) World BankAfghanistan has been in conflict and internal turmoil since the early 1970s, which has resulted in loss of life, insecurity, ethnic division, and wide-spread damage to the environment and natural resources. As citizens of one of the poorest nations in the world with an increasing poverty level that reached 55 percent in 2016-2017, 80 percent of Afghans depend on natural resources for their daily subsistence. Fodder for livestock, fuel wood for heating and cooking, water for agriculture and consumption, medicinal plants and wildlife provide scarce means for survival and limited trade. The government of Afghanistan is giving agriculture and natural resource management utmost priority for development. Current policies link natural resources management to private sector development, justice sector reform (land administration), agriculture development, mineral and resource development, and human capital development programs. This World Bank paper that highlights the importance of the rangelands and forest resources for the country’s sustainable development. The paper explains the status and role of rangelands and forest resources for the country’s mostly rural population. It describes the importance of the sector for boosting agricultural productivity, addressing climate change and weather- related natural disasters, and contributing to rural jobs creation. It further offers some recommendations on how to revitalize the natural resources management sector that is critically important in the context of rural development and Afghanistan’s economy, and is yet often overlooked and broadly neglected.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-11) World Bank GroupRomania has already been affected by climate change. The IPCC projections indicate that the climate will warm up over this century at least in line with global projections and precipitation patterns will shift so as to make winters wetter and summers drier. Already, in 2007, Romania experienced the warmest year in two decades (average temperature 11.5° C against a 25 year average of 8.4° C) and the most severe drought in the last 60 years while in 2005 there were historic floods, which caused 76 deaths and significant property damage. The effects of these extreme weather events adversely affected the country through significant economic loss in agriculture, transport, energy supply, and water management. Consequently, mitigation and adaptation to climate change are increasingly important priorities for Romania. After the introduction chapter, the current situation as well as the CC commitments that Romania has undertaken are presented in chapter two. Chapter three provides the possible good practices that could provide inspiration for further reform. A contrast of the commitments with the current capacity and the available good practices has been substantiated in the analyses of capacity gaps that need to be addressed in chapter four. The next chapter provides the avenues for breaching those gaps and sustainably building CC capacity in order to ensure the smooth implementation of the strategy. Project management and financing is treated separately in chapter six since it has been an issue of particular concern and difficulty for the GoR. Finally, chapter seven sets out the basic elements of a public engagement campaign that will be essential for making CC a national issue present in the awareness of the public authorities, civil society and general public alike. A comprehensive list of the proposed measures and their time horizons can be found in annex one.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-06) World Bank GroupThe Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) Africa report describes the progress African countries are making on strengthening the quality of their policies and institutions. Some of the results from this report include: The overall quality of policies and institutions in countries in Sub-Saharan Africa was unchanged in 2014, but there was much variation in performance across countries. More than half the countries in the region saw a change in their policy environment: 10 countries experienced an improvement in their overall CPIA score, and an equal number saw a deterioration. There were divergent trends across policy clusters. Economic management weekend on the back of continuing fiscal policy slippage, as the sharp drop in commodity prices underscored weaknesses in the fiscal framework of several of the regions countries. By contrast, there was some strengthening in the governance cluster, with nine countries showing improvements in scores, more than twice the number of countries with declines. The greatest progress in this cluster was in the quality of budgetary and financial management.