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Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2010-02-01) World BankChile is well-advanced in the field of program and project evaluation, with adequate institutions and procedures in place, and has achieved a very high standard by any international comparison. DIPRES has established a system of evaluations of sound quality. This system promotes the utilization of evaluation results in management decisions, including budget decision. The outsourcing of evaluations guarantees technical and political independence of program and project evaluations, while increasing their credibility. On the other hand, policy evaluation in Chile is mainly an ad-hoc and spontaneous activity, with no definite procedures or standards. Regardless of the quality of those sporadic evaluations, the fact remains that no one is responsible for the selection, methods, implementation, financing, and utilization of the results of policy evaluations. This report will focus on developing a strategy and instruments for further institutionalizing public policy assessment in Chile. The first chapter discusses definitions and concepts related to the public policy process and describes the scope of this report. Chapter second examines the policy processes of six Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, including federal countries such as Canada and the United States (U.S.) and unitary countries similar to Chile. Chapter third takes the OECD context as background to analyze Chile’s own policy process and lays out challenges to improving the policy process in Chile. Chapter fourth builds on the previous analysis to offer a number of possible directions Chile can take to achieve its goal of strengthening public policy assessment.
Publication(Washington, DC, 2008) World BankChile is increasingly looking to innovation as a pillar of its competitiveness and an engine of growth to close the income gap with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) economies. The country has doubled its per capita income since the 1990s. The growth slowdown in the late 1990s and early 2000s, however, raised concerns about that the old sources of growth. While the rate of growth has picked up again, spurred by a favorable external environment, there is an increased awareness of the importance of innovation to growth and a desire to move toward a more diversified and knowledge-based economy, following the example of other successful resource-rich economies such as Australia and Finland. Higher government commitments to innovation have raised new challenges. The remaining of the report is structured as follows. Chapter two discusses the importance of innovation to Chile's economy and highlights the need to define innovation policy within a comprehensive framework that encompasses the entire production system. Chapter three organizes thinking around some basic governance principles for innovation systems drawing form the public governance literature, the broader innovation literature, and international experiences. Chapter four applies those principles to Chile's public institutions and agents that will be responsible for defining and implementing innovation policies. Chapter five examines the rationale and guiding principles of regional innovation policies and offers recommendations for Chile's regional innovation systems and their governance framework. Chapter six summarizes the main conclusions.