Institutional and Governance Review

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    Federative Republic of Brazil: National Road Safety Capacity Review
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-11-01) World Bank
    As part of a long-term partnership between the World Bank and Brazil, the Federal Government of Brazil sought the World Bank’s assistance to review road safety management capacity in Brazil, building both on past experiences in the country and international best practices. This National Road Safety Management Capacity Review, therefore, was prepared by the World Bank, with the support of the Global Road Safety Facility (GRSF). The primary objective of the review is to evaluate the multi-sectoral capacity of road safety management in Brazil, identifying possible road safety challenges and presenting recommendations to address these challenges. The methodology of the review, in accordance with the guidelines of the World Bank Global Road Safety Facility, focused on examinations of key functional aspects of road safety, including institutions, legislation, financing, information, and capacities at all levels of government and among non-government actors. The review was prepared mainly based on interviews of key road safety stakeholders at the federal, state, and municipal levels, members of parliament, NGOs, and the private sector, in addition to direct inspection of roads and on-road behaviors, and the analysis of published research and reports on road safety. In addition, information and understanding gained from previous reviews of the states of São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, and Bahia were also incorporated.
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    Jamaica : Parliamentary Oversight of Public Finances--An Institutional Review
    (Washington, DC, 2013-06-10) World Bank
    Sound legislative oversight of public finances is crucial to ensure efficiency and effectiveness of public spending. All national governments, and particularly those that are accountable to their citizens through free elections and the voice of civil society, are concerned with the efficiency and efficacy of public finances. More broadly, well-functioning parliaments promote good governance; enhance transparency and accountability, including for public expenditures and their results; widen public discourse on national priorities and options; and build better partnerships between officials and representatives and their electorate. In all this, those among the citizenry with the least have the most to gain. This report responds to a request from the Government of Jamaica to review the structure and capacity of the Parliament of Jamaica to undertake its constitutional role with respect to oversight of the nation's public finances. Jamaica's Parliament is the country's supreme legislative body, consisting of an elected House of Representatives and an appointed Senate (Upper House), as well as the Queen or her representative, as the ceremonial head, and the Governor General. The Government of Jamaica has amended various legislations to adopt a Fiscal Responsibility Framework (FRF). The FRF includes specific fiscal targets as well as provisions to include the Ministry of Finance (MOF) and public service control over expenditures and lending.
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    Policy Assessment in the OECD: Lessons for Chile
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2010-02-01) World Bank
    Chile is well-advanced in the field of program and project evaluation, with adequate institutions and procedures in place, and has achieved a very high standard by any international comparison. DIPRES has established a system of evaluations of sound quality. This system promotes the utilization of evaluation results in management decisions, including budget decision. The outsourcing of evaluations guarantees technical and political independence of program and project evaluations, while increasing their credibility. On the other hand, policy evaluation in Chile is mainly an ad-hoc and spontaneous activity, with no definite procedures or standards. Regardless of the quality of those sporadic evaluations, the fact remains that no one is responsible for the selection, methods, implementation, financing, and utilization of the results of policy evaluations. This report will focus on developing a strategy and instruments for further institutionalizing public policy assessment in Chile. The first chapter discusses definitions and concepts related to the public policy process and describes the scope of this report. Chapter second examines the policy processes of six Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, including federal countries such as Canada and the United States (U.S.) and unitary countries similar to Chile. Chapter third takes the OECD context as background to analyze Chile’s own policy process and lays out challenges to improving the policy process in Chile. Chapter fourth builds on the previous analysis to offer a number of possible directions Chile can take to achieve its goal of strengthening public policy assessment.
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    "Strengthening Performance Accountability in Honduras" : Institutional Governance Review : Executive Summary
    (World Bank, 2009-03-09) World Bank
    Having achieved fundamental milestones in terms of representative democracy and institutional modernization, Honduras continues to face important challenges in its bid to provide public services with coverage and quality commensurate with the resources available to the country. Honduras has come a long way in its democratic development, with seven free elections held since 1981 and the military subordinated to civilian control. Since the 1980s, the country has undertaken key public sector management reforms and has all of the formal components of a modern democracy. However, its average rate of economic growth and its degree of progress in reducing poverty over the past two decades have been low relative to most other Latin American countries, at this growth rate, Honduras will reach the current income per capita of El Salvador ($2,530) in 2050. Efficiency of public spending continues to be very low compared to regional standards, and the capacity of the public administration insufficient for ensuring the minimum goal of universal coverage of basic services. A general conclusion, highlighted throughout the study, is the need to strengthen the country's accountability framework and in particular, the accountability of policymakers towards citizens and tax payers, and to focus the policy discussion on performance.
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    "Strengthening Performance Accountability in Honduras" : Institutional Governance Review : Background Chapters
    (World Bank, 2009-03-09) World Bank
    Having achieved fundamental milestones in terms of representative democracy and institutional modernization, Honduras continues to face important challenges in its bid to provide public services with coverage and quality commensurate with the resources available to the country. Honduras has come a long way in its democratic development, with seven free elections held since 1981 and the military subordinated to civilian control. Since the 1980s, the country has undertaken key public sector management reforms and has all of the formal components of a modern democracy. However, its average rate of economic growth and its degree of progress in reducing poverty over the past two decades have been low relative to most other Latin American countries, at this growth rate, Honduras will reach the current income per capita of El Salvador ($2,530) in 2050. Efficiency of public spending continues to be very low compared to regional standards, and the capacity of the public administration insufficient for ensuring the minimum goal of universal coverage of basic services. A general conclusion, highlighted throughout the study, is the need to strengthen the country's accountability framework and in particular, the accountability of policymakers towards citizens and tax payers, and to focus the policy discussion on performance.
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    Nicaragua : Institutional and Governance Review
    (Washington, DC, 2008-04) World Bank
    This document presents the main governance indicators for the country, as compiled by the World Bank Institute (WBI), and how are they used by international institutions in making decisions about assistance to Nicaragua. Although these indicators have weaknesses, they can provide a general indication of what are the priority areas for investigation. Accordingly, the present review concentrates on a few key areas where the Bank's expertise can add value and complement the efforts of other donors, including: (a) the regulatory system; (b) the system of property registries; and (c) two of the mechanisms for oversight and accountability of public sector performance (the Comptroller's Office and social accountability). The overall objective of the Institutional and Governance Review (IGR) is to examine the institutional and governance bottlenecks that stand in the way of more effective impact of key public policies, particularly poverty reduction policies. Since the report is limited in scope, the criteria to decide priority areas for review included: (a) issues that are of particular significance for better governance and institutionality; (b) issues that are particularly important in relation to poverty reduction; (c) issues where the Bank has a comparative advantage; and (d) issues where there would not be a duplication of effort with other donors or other studies undertaken by the Bank and where the IGR can add value.
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    Chile: Toward a Cohesive and Well Governed National Innovation System
    (Washington, DC, 2008) World Bank
    Chile is increasingly looking to innovation as a pillar of its competitiveness and an engine of growth to close the income gap with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) economies. The country has doubled its per capita income since the 1990s. The growth slowdown in the late 1990s and early 2000s, however, raised concerns about that the old sources of growth. While the rate of growth has picked up again, spurred by a favorable external environment, there is an increased awareness of the importance of innovation to growth and a desire to move toward a more diversified and knowledge-based economy, following the example of other successful resource-rich economies such as Australia and Finland. Higher government commitments to innovation have raised new challenges. The remaining of the report is structured as follows. Chapter two discusses the importance of innovation to Chile's economy and highlights the need to define innovation policy within a comprehensive framework that encompasses the entire production system. Chapter three organizes thinking around some basic governance principles for innovation systems drawing form the public governance literature, the broader innovation literature, and international experiences. Chapter four applies those principles to Chile's public institutions and agents that will be responsible for defining and implementing innovation policies. Chapter five examines the rationale and guiding principles of regional innovation policies and offers recommendations for Chile's regional innovation systems and their governance framework. Chapter six summarizes the main conclusions.
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    Democratic Governance in Mexico : Beyond State Capture and Social Polarization
    (Washington, DC, 2007-03) World Bank
    Mexico is in the midst of a transition. The defeat of the Revolutionary Institutional Party (PRI) in the 2000 presidential election marked a watershed, and with the repeated defeat of the PRI in the 2006 election, the era of the single?party dominance appears to be long gone. The demise of the one?party system may have been expected to usher in a new era where benefits of the government policies and economic development are more widely shared. But, such a change has yet to take place. Why not? At the same time, there is a strong perception that the pace of much?needed economic reforms slowed down under the new political arrangement. Why? This Institutional and Governance Review (IGR) addresses these crucial questions, and in so doing tries to offer some insights into how Mexico's democratic governance may be strengthened over time. Taking into consideration the evidence collected for this work, the study argues that Mexico is well positioned to start its second transition towards effective democratic governance in the country, but to do so will require addressing certain socio-political obstacles that continue to limit the full effects of democratic accountability.
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    Republic of Paraguay Institutional and Governance Review Breaking with Tradition : Overcoming Institutional Impediments to Improve Public Sector Performance
    (Washington, DC, 2005-06) World Bank
    The present study uses examples from all three branches of Government - the Ministry of Finance, the ordinary courts, and the Congress in its budgetary role - to examine the institutional obstacles to their improved performance and the opportunities for targeted changes. It builds on recent analytic work done by Paraguayan academics and others, highlighting the historical and persisting impact of the traditional political practices. The arguments emphasize that the particularistic use of public resources has been and remains key to obtaining and holding political power in Paraguay. The study's goals were eminently practical to provide Paraguay's reformers with insights as to how they can escape a series of vicious circles. As they understand the basics quite well, the emphasis here was on their more detailed application at the organizational and sub-organizational levels.
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    From Patronage to a Professional State : Bolivia Institutional and Governance Review, Volume 2. Annexes
    (Washington, DC, 2000-08-25) World Bank
    The study, an institutional, and governance review of Bolivia, describes the transformation of the country's political economy as of the 1980s, the aim for consistent macroeconomic stability, and, the consolidation of the democratic political regime. However, despite a number of bold reforms to develop market-oriented systems, and in contrast with government efforts, the quality of public services remained low. Namely, because public sector reforms were not implemented, and because of symptomatic institutional weaknesses; for although assistance was provided to modernize the civil service, and improve public administration, the lack of government commitment to a changing program focus, precluded noticeable results. The current reform agenda has identified the need for state modernization, governance and accountability, and judicial reform, addressed within the National Integrity Plan, to combat corruption, and other symptoms of public sector dysfunction. The study presents a blunt vision of Bolivian public administration, through the absence of a functioning bureaucracy, reviewing the legal framework and organizational structure, with an emphasis on the "informality" of public administration, - a challenge for institutional development. But the deeper causes of poor public sector performance, lie on the patrimonial dynamics of party politics. Recommendations include parallel advances between public, and market sector reforms, reliable external controls, and strengthened capacity of the public sector.