Items in this collection
PublicationBuilding SOE Crisis Management and Resilience: Emerging Practices and Lessons Learned During the COVID-19 Crisis(Washington, DC, 2021-09) World BankThis note is one of a series produced by the World Bank’s Governance Global Practice to help client countries address the impact of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on their economies and governance structures. Addressed to central governments and the management of individual state-owned enterprises (SOEs), this note analyses the implications of the COVID-19 crisis for the public sector and provides guidance on how governments and SOEs can use this crisis to build or strengthen their crisis response systems. Suggested measures involve calibrating risks and introducing proper risk management systems, ensuring business continuity and resilience in emergency situations, as well as supporting the ability of public enterprises to bounce back in the post-crisis environment. This note draws on existing World Bank analysis of emerging global trends in governments’ COVID-19 response measures as pertains to SOEs. It includes practical recommendations that can be considered for implementation by governments and by individual SOEs. In addition, the note lists examples of policy measures that can potentially be supported through the World Bank’s budget support operations. PublicationImpact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Municipal Finance(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2021-06-30) World BankCity local governments have been facing multiple challenges due to the COVID-19 pandemic to secure adequate financial resources for response and recovery. This report assesses the impact of the pandemic on local governments’ financial situations through cross-country analysis and comparison. Three indicative types of local government adjustments are discussed and scenario analysis is used to highlight the risks and uncertainties associated with the pandemic’s impact and subsequent economic recovery. PublicationInstitutional Development Roadmap Handbook: Effective Design, Implementation and Evaluation of Project-led Institutional Development in the Transport Sector(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-06-01) Benamghar, RadiaThe World Bank (WB) is a vital source of financial and technical assistance across the transport sector in India. While financial resources and technical expertise are vital, they are not sufficient to promote sustainable development. This requires strong and durable institutions in client countries. In India’s transport sector, the extent to which sustained Institutional Development has been achieved varies significantly between projects. An understanding of the factors that led to successful outcomes and sustained institutional development is key to ensuring long-term added value of WB and client country investments. The Institutional Development Roadmap (IDR) presents a set of four interrelated tools that can help TTLs and IAs develop projects that coherently integrate infrastructure and ID, specifically focusing on building sustainable capacity to achieve both. The IDR contributes toward ensuring high impact, sustainable development by providing a systematic way to assess the environment for change and the capacity of IAs to achieve clear and measurable development outcomes. The IDRT is informed by the building blocks of political economy analysis, focusing on how power and resources are distributed and contested in specific areas of possible project support. It was designed to identify opportunities and challenges in these areas by addressing how formal and informal interests, incentives, and institutions support or prevent the reforms required for sustainable ID. The tools also recognize the importance of engaging key stakeholders (including citizens impacted by potential WB projects) in designing and implementing sustainable interventions that are achievable within the project life cycle and sustainable after the project closes. PublicationRe-Mapping Opportunity: Making Best Use of the Economic Potential of Russia's Regions(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-03-01) World BankIn order to understand a country as large and diverse as Russia, it is extremely important to consider spatial patterns of economic development. As Russia looks for new drivers of economic growth, it is important to understand the structural conditions that have defined economic development in Russia’s regions. This report uses the Economic Potential Index (EPI) methodology to identify the conditions that drive regional development. Economic potential is the level of productivity that is possible for a region to achieve given its structural endowments, which are characteristics that are hard to alter in the short run. The methodology used in this report combines quantitative analysis of drivers of productivity across regions with in-depth case studies that focus on the role of regional governments and institutions in converting endowments into economic outcomes. This methodology generates insights that are relevant for both national and regional governments. The first chapter of this report provides an overview of regional development in Russia over the last 25 years and identifies “Russia-specific” national structural conditions that may affect regional development. The second chapter discusses the results of an assessment of economic potential at the regional level and the factors that shape it in Russia. The third chapter focuses on the role of national and regional governance, policy, and institutions in promoting economic development of the regions. The final chapter proposes policy priorities for both regional and national authorities. PublicationEnhancing Public Sector Performance: Malaysia’s Experience with Transforming Land Administration(World Bank, Kuala Lumpur, 2017-11) World Bank GroupThis report is part of the series focusing on documenting the lessons from Malaysia for other developing countries in improving their public-sector management. These lessons include those at the center of government, such as the delivery unit method applied to the implementation of the national priorities, or implementing the elements of performance-based budgeting, as well as deeper analysis of specific approaches in various sectors. Strategies for improving public sector performance will differ in education, health, public transport, or land administration. Yet at this sectoral juncture, public sector management has the most direct impact on service delivery and citizens’ outcomes. This report focuses on land policies and land administration services because they are key for good governance. They are fundamental for secure land rights, developing land markets and managing land resources in a manner that best contributes to economic growth, efficient public sector service delivery, environmental protection, and social cohesion and security. Land and buildings generally represent between half and three quarters of the national wealth in all countries. The importance of secure land rights and good land administration have been recognized in several international forums including the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the United Nations Committee on Food Security and the World Bank and International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Fit for Purpose Land Administration publication. PublicationRailway Reform: Toolkit for Improving Rail Sector Performance(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-09) World BankThis Railway Reform Toolkit aims to provide an easy-to-use resource on the rail industry and to provide an experience-based set of best practices to aid in the planning and execution of railway reforms. It s based on international experiences with railway reform under a range of railway organizational forms, state agencies, state-owned, or private enterprises. The toolkit should be particularly useful to those thinking about transitions from one organizational form to another and for those seeking to improve railway performance through investment, reorganization, or changes in government policy. PublicationColombia: Policy Strategy for Public Financial Management of Natural Disaster Risk(2016-10) World Bank GroupDisasters resulting from natural hazards represent an important challenge for Colombia’s fiscal sustainability and stability. Colombia is one of the countries with the highest recurrence rate of disasters caused by natural hazards in Latin America (see the Annex)1. As the country’s population and economy continue to grow, so will the economic losses resulting from such events, an average of 600 disaster events of which is reported per year2. Colombia’s rate of economic growth is increasing the base of assets exposed to disaster risks, which may lead to significant increases in losses, particularly if investments in new assets are not accompanied by plans for mitigating disaster risk. The Government of Colombia (GoC) recognizes the importance of mitigating these events and has taken several steps to mainstream disaster risk management into its policy and programs, as evinced by the National Development Plan ‘2014-2018’, ‘all for a New Country’. The MHCP is committed to developing strategies for reducing its contingent liabilities in relation to disasters and to managing the fiscal risk resulting from these events. This document presents the priority policy objectives that have been established to assess, reduce, and manage fiscal risk due to natural disasters. It also describes the MHCP’s efforts to progress its policy objectives in the long term. These policy objectives represent the MHCP’s ex ante policy framework regarding management of financial and fiscal disaster risk. The MHCP identifies three priority policy objectives in order to strengthen management of the Government’s contingent liabilities and thus support the goal of achieving macroeconomic stability and fiscal balance. The policy objectives are: (i) identification and understanding of fiscal risk due to disasters; (ii) financial management of natural disaster risk, including the implementation of innovative financial instruments; and (iii) catastrophe risk insurance for public assets. PublicationFrom Pork to Performance(World Bank, Washington, DC and AidData, 2016-06) Custer, Samantha; Rahemtulla, Hanif; Kaiser, Kai-Alexander; van den Brink, RogierFrom pork to performance illuminates the politics of how public resources are spent and the difficulty of the ‘last mile’ of service delivery. Crumbling facilities, absentee teachers, and roads to nowhere waste resources and retard development in many countries around the world. These failures in last mile service delivery underscore a more intractable development problem, a breakdown in accountability relationships, as politicians and civil servants act with impunity to extract private benefits at the expense of public goods. This study examines the extent to which technology and transparency can disrupt this low accountability status quo through turning information into collective action to improve government performance by strengthening the accountability relationships between politicians, service providers and citizens. In 2010, a new president came to power in the Philippines with a compelling message, ‘no corruption, no poverty’, and embraced open government as a vehicle to burn avenues of retreat and advance governance reforms. This study features examples from five sectors, education, reconstruction, roads, municipal development, and tax collection – where government champions sought to open up the black box of service delivery and use digital platforms to disclose data and strengthen accountability. This research provides guidance for public, private, and civil society leaders committed to using technology and transparency to curb pork-barrel politics and create digital dividends for their communities. The study combines rigorous political economy analysis with practical diagnostic tools and recommendations for open government initiatives to go deeper in the Philippines and around the world. PublicationThe Role of Local Governments in Promoting Local Economic Development in Uganda(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-06) World Bank GroupWhile Uganda has a long history of decentralized service delivery, and has instituted Local Economic Development (LED) as an additional mandate for local governments (LGs), there has been less progress in operationalizing the concept and practically implementing it across LGs in Uganda. In addition to their basic service delivery functions enshrined in the Local Governments Act of 1997, since 2006 LGs are also mandated by various policy documents to play a role in wealth creation, and increasing citizens’ income levels. While the Government of Uganda (GoU)’s LED Policy does outline the strategic intervention areas that LGs should implement, there is still considerable confusion among LG staff as to what this entails on a day to day basis and there has been limited progress in implementation. At the request of the MoLG, the World Bank, therefore, commissioned this assignment in support of the Government of Uganda (GoU's) efforts to improve the capacities of LGs for promoting LED. The study focused on assessing three localities (Jinja Municipality, and Arua and Nwoya Districts), both in terms of their local economic potentials and enabling environment for business, as well as in terms of the institutional and policy context for promoting LED. The study used quantitative methodologies, to identify promising economic sectors in the three localities, as well as qualitative methodologies to identify the main constraints that those sectors currently face. PublicationOn the Move: A Look on the Transport Sector’s Management in Chile, Finland, Morocco, South Africa, and South Korea(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-12-16) World BankThis report is a result of a study that aimed to identify more efficient institutional and governance structures to manage the transport sector in Oman. It encompassed on road transport, maritime transport, railways, and road-based public transport. Aviation and airports were excluded from the scope of the study. The study consisted of an institutional review of transport sector organization in select countries. The case study countries were selected for a combination of attributes: well-managed systems known to be effective and with elements recognized internationally as good practice. The case studies map the institutional structures of their transport sector ministries and of individual transport sector modes (or sub-sectors). The countries represent a diverse group by geography and demographics. In addition, this paper describes how transport sub-sectors are organized in the five case study countries dealing respectively with: (1) the peak governance entity, typically a Ministry of Transport or equivalent, and the central functions of regulatory administration; (2) ports; (3) railways; (4) roads, (5) and public transport. Particular attention is given to structural, institutional, and financing dimensions. This report may be of interest to transport sector political leaders, public officials, and their advisers who may be contemplating the assessment or strengthening of transport sector governance in their own countries.