Items in this collection
PublicationZambia Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Diagnostic: Narrowing the Gap between Policy and Practice(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-06) World BankAccess to water supply and sanitation (WSS) services remains stubbornly low in Zambia. This poor record on WSS service delivery is disastrous for Zambia’s economy by negatively affecting human capital development, which in turn creates a drag on the economy. Successive governments in Zambia have recognized this important sector of the economy and launched reforms and investment programs. Successive governments in Zambia have recognized this important sector of the economy and launched reforms and investment programs. This analysis shows that Zambia’s chronically inefficient water utilities are creating a fiscal burden and making it harder for the government to finance the sector. The rest of the report is organized as follows: Chapter 2 provides an analysis of the strategic relevance of the WSS programs to Zambia’s economy, drawing on existing literature on the economic impacts of WSS and analysis of a sample of projects in both programs. Chapter 3 analyzes the extent to which the programs are structured to deliver desired results, focusing on the design and prioritization of investments, implementation arrangements, and monitoring and evaluation. Chapter 4 provides an analysis of the expenditure framework for both programs and the extent to which it supports efficient program implementation. Chapter 5 summarizes opportunities that exist to enhance the effectiveness and impact of both programs and makes recommendations on medium-term actions to advance Zambia’s WSS sector and narrow the gap between policy and practice. PublicationEthiopia: Modelling the Impact of Tobacco Tax Policy Reforms on Tobacco Use and Domestic Resources Mobilization Under Different Scenarios(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-01-23) World Bank GroupAs part of the ongoing tax policy dialogue with the Government of Ethiopia, the World BankGroup organized a workshop in Addis Ababa, on June 20, 2016, to discuss tobacco use, its healthimpact, and excise taxes on tobacco as a public policy measure to reduce tobacco use, and hencethe risk of ill health, premature mortality, and disability due to tobacco-related diseases, andmobilize additional domestic resources to expand the fiscal capacity of the government, inaccordance with the Financing for Development Addis Ababa Action Agenda. This event wasattended by officials from the Ministry of Health (MOH) and Ministry of Finance & EconomicCooperation (MoFEC). Ethiopia's Health Sector Transformation Plan 2015-2020 lists noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) as one of the major public health challenges facing the country. As in the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, NCDs are expected to become the leading cause of ill health and death by 2030, influenced by rapid urbanization, rapid per capita economic growth, increase in behavioral risk factors (most NCDs are the result of tobacco use, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, and/or the harmful use of alcohol), and improvements in the control of infectious diseases that increase life expectancy. As NCDs have become a major health burden in the country, the Government has put in place ambitious targets to reduce the prevalence of the main health risk factors associated with the onset of NCDs among the population. The strategy focuses on increasing prevention and control of the main risk factors: tobacco use and alcohol abuse, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet, which contribute to about 80 percent of NCDs. PublicationThe Role of Local Governments in Promoting Local Economic Development in Uganda(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-06) World Bank GroupWhile Uganda has a long history of decentralized service delivery, and has instituted Local Economic Development (LED) as an additional mandate for local governments (LGs), there has been less progress in operationalizing the concept and practically implementing it across LGs in Uganda. In addition to their basic service delivery functions enshrined in the Local Governments Act of 1997, since 2006 LGs are also mandated by various policy documents to play a role in wealth creation, and increasing citizens’ income levels. While the Government of Uganda (GoU)’s LED Policy does outline the strategic intervention areas that LGs should implement, there is still considerable confusion among LG staff as to what this entails on a day to day basis and there has been limited progress in implementation. At the request of the MoLG, the World Bank, therefore, commissioned this assignment in support of the Government of Uganda (GoU's) efforts to improve the capacities of LGs for promoting LED. The study focused on assessing three localities (Jinja Municipality, and Arua and Nwoya Districts), both in terms of their local economic potentials and enabling environment for business, as well as in terms of the institutional and policy context for promoting LED. The study used quantitative methodologies, to identify promising economic sectors in the three localities, as well as qualitative methodologies to identify the main constraints that those sectors currently face. PublicationFederal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia: Evaluation of MDGs Specific Purpose Grant to Regions(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-03-29) World BankEthiopia is a highly decentralized country. Presently, sub-national government taxes and revenues account for about 28 percent of general taxes and revenues, and sub-national expenditures amount to 51 percent of general government expenditures. The ensuing vertical mismatch is bridged by grants from the Federal government to the regions. Presently, these grants account for 57 percent of sub-national expenditures1. For many years, these grants consisted mostly of a block grant (the Federal General Purpose Grant) given without any strings attached, which means the regions could use it as they wished. The rest of the report is organized as follows. Section two provides the policy context that is the information, data, evolutions, etc. specific to Ethiopia, which are necessary to understand and interpret the MDGs grant policy. Section three present and discusses the policy content that is the components of the policy previously identified. Section four is a policy assessment, which utilizes the evaluation framework proposed above to analyze the relationships between the various components of the policy, and discuss its efficiency, its effectiveness and its success. Section five is a conclusion that summarizes the analysis, and attempts, prudently and modestly, to outline some potential avenues for future action. PublicationBasic Requirements for Public Participation in Kenya’s Legal Framework(World Bank Group, Washington, DC, 2015-02) Nizam, Rabya; Muriu, Abraham Rugo; International Budget PartnershipKenya has embarked on a highly ambitious decentralization that seeks to fundamentally change the relationship between government and citizens under the 2010 Constitution. The Constitution and new legal framework place a strong emphasis on strengthening public participation. This working paper seeks to distill key provisions in the legislative framework related to transparency, accountability and participation in county government, in particular the planning and budgeting cycle, and present them in a format that is useful for county planners, executive and assembly members. It can be used as a guide for how counties can interface with citizens based on Kenya’s legislative framework. PublicationIntegrating Social Accountability in Healthcare Delivery: Lessons Drawn from Kenya(World Bank Group, Washington, DC, 2015-02) Wangũi Machira, YvonneThe Constitution of Kenya provides that most functions of the state are decentralized in a devolution process. The devolved health system is four tiered: community health services, primary care services, county referral services, and national referral services. However, even though roles and responsibilities are elaborately outlined, in practice the transition from national to county governments has been marred by inconsistency, poor understanding of the system, management challenges, and lack of coordination between the national and county governments. This policy note provides observations from a pilot that tested integration of social accountability mechanisms in healthcare delivery in Kenya between 2011 and 2013. PublicationParticipation in Kenya’s Local Development Funds: Reviewing the Past to Inform the Future(World Bank Group, Washington, DC, 2015-02) Finch, ChistopherKenya's new Constitution mandates a new era of public participation in government, particularly within the devolved government structure. The new devolved structures can benefit from reviewing the country's prior experience with participation in decentralized funds. The Kenyan government and citizens gained extensive experience in local participatory development through decentralized programs and funds, in particular the local authority transfer fund (LATF) and the constituency development fund (CDF). This paper focuses on the two development funds because participatory initiatives both by the government and the civil society were centered on them. This paper reviews Kenya's past experiences on public participation in local service delivery to highlight practical lessons that county governments can draw from as they design participation mechanisms. PublicationKenya Devolution Working Paper Series: Summary Overview(World Bank Group, Washington, DC, 2015-02) Kenya School of Government; World BankKenya has embarked on a highly ambitious decentralization that seeks to fundamentally change the relationship between government and citizens under the 2010 Constitution. The Constitution seeks to shift government from centralized to decentralized, and from "top-down" to "bottom-up". The Constitution and new legal framework place a strong emphasis on strengthening public participation. Strengthening public participation and governance is a core element in Kenya's strategy to accelerate growth and address long-standing inequalities in economic opportunities, investment, and service delivery in different parts of the country. PublicationOne Year On: Review of Country Initiatives in Public Participation in the Roll Out of Devolution(World Bank Group, Washington, DC, 2015-02) Nizam, Rabya; Muriu, Abraham RugoThe roll-out of devolution has been formally underway since March 2013 when county governments were established under the 2010 Constitution. The period under review is April 2013 to June 2014, which enables observations of public engagement in preparation of the 2013-2014 county budgets (between April-June 2013) and the 2014-2015 county budgets (between September 2013-June 2014). This paper reviews initial county initiatives on public participation and possible interventions to improve the overall design and implementation of participatory systems going forward. PublicationPractical Approaches for County Governments to Facilitate Public Participation in the Planning and Budget Process(World Bank Group, Washington, DC, 2015-02) Omolo, AnnetteKenya's new Constitution and supportive legal framework contain multiple provisions requiring both national government and counties to make information publicly available and consult with citizens in planning and budgeting. Citizen participation affords county governments an opportunity to empower citizens on their operations and to deliberate, debate, and influence the allocation of public resources. This working paper presents practical approaches for Kenyan counties to implement public participation in their systems that encourage meaningful public engagement.