Other Public Sector Study

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  • Publication
    Delivering Together: Using Indonesia's Village Law to Optimize Frontline Service Delivery
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-08-19) World Bank
    Over the past twenty years, Indonesia has pursued an ambitious policy agenda for decentralization. Indonesia's subnational governments play a key role in providing frontline services. In 2014, Indonesia's Village Law ushered in a new chapter in the country's decentralization agenda. The law establishes a legal and financial foundation for villages to contribute to Indonesia's rural development. In 2020, village transfers accounted for around ten percent of all subnational transfers, playing an important role in Indonesia's Coronavirus (COVID-19) response strategy. Despite these positive results, several frontier issues in the overall decentralization agenda hinder villages' contributing potential to improving frontline service delivery. This report categorizes these structural challenges into four broad categories of regulatory challenges, coordination gaps, limited capacity building systems, and fragmentation in accountability systems. The report aims to show how overcoming these structural challenges can enable the government to institutionalize systems of accountability and participation into its wider service delivery framework.
  • Publication
    Leveraging ICT Platforms to Foster Citizen Engagement For Enhanced Public Accountability: The Korean Experience
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-05-10) Bae, You-Jin; Choi, Seung Won; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Seongjun
    This learning note aims to document the experience of the Board of Audit and Inspection of Korea (BAI) and the online administrative appeals hub system of Korea’s Central Administrative Appeals Commission (CAAC) in leveraging ICT platforms for citizen engagement. The note both analyzes participatory practices and examines how the use of ICT platforms contributed to enhance public outreach by making citizen engagement in public accountability more cost-effective, scalable, transparent, and inclusive. The learning note targets accountability institutions (such as supreme audit institutions, anti corruption agencies,and so on), as well as representatives from civil society organizations and citizens around the world interested in knowing more about the experience of Korea, including the challenges and opportunities, in leveraging ICT tools to foster citizen engagement for enhanced public accountability.
  • Publication
    Digital Government and Open Data Readiness Assessment
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-02) World Bank; Government of Vietnam
    This report, composed of two separate themes of Digital Government Readiness Assessment (DGRA) and Open Data Readiness Assessment (ODRA), is intended to help government assess their digital environments and frame their own strategies.In order to assess the potential for a Digital Enabling Government Initiative (DEGI) for Vietnam, this report compiles two chapters of aforementioned DGRA and ODRA. Specifically, it assesses potential opportunities and challenges of improving digital government and open data initiatives in the country. Although DGRA and ODRA are two separate assessments with different dimensions evaluated, they take a similar methodological approach from a broader point of view, starting with the desk research and later expanding to scoping mission. Therefore, both chapters of DGRA and ODRA are similar in format but outlined in respective assessment dimension and individual indicators. Since its onset in the fall of 2017, intensive desk research was conducted, and a field mission was carried out to confirm preliminary findings and uncover additional insight during a specific period in time, which means that during the course of analysis and writing additional developments could have been made. This is similar to the United Nations global e-government development report, which assesses progress during a “snapshot” in time.DGRA, the first part of the report, aims to evaluate Vietnam’s current potential for digital government development across seven key dimensions of leadership and governance; user focus; business process change; capabilities; culture and skills; shared infrastructure; data driven; and cybersecurity, privacy and resilience. Meanwhile, ODRA assesses Vietnam’s open data policy through evaluating eight different dimensions of leadership; policy/legal framework; institutional structure; data within government; demand; citizen engagement; funding; and infrastructure.The DGRA chapter focuses on digital government, which is a core part of Digital Economy as public sector delivers information and services more effectively and make them accessible to its citizens.The DGRA also measures the citizen’s demand for digital government services as well as integration and infrastructure policies to delve deeper into the opportunities and challenges the country faces in its digital development journey. The assessment includes a step-by-step analysis of specific components of digital government and presents an action plan to address the challenges identified for improvement.ODRA, the second part of the report, focuses on the country’s open data policy. Open data refers that the data must be both legally and technically open to public, thus placed in the public domain or under liberal terms of use with minimal restrictions, and that the data is published in machine-readable and preferably in non-proprietary electronic formats, which enables everyone to access and use data with freely available software tools.This report, bringing DGRA and ODRA assessments altogether, aims to help raise awareness of digital government and open data, two critical topics as Vietnam prepares its next step for the fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0). Further, it hopes to serve as a useful resource for the top government leadership in identifying areas of relative strengths and weaknesses to help improve digital government and open data at the same time.
  • Publication
    Enhancing Public Sector Performance: Malaysia’s Experience with Transforming Land Administration
    (World Bank, Kuala Lumpur, 2017-11) World Bank Group
    This report is part of the series focusing on documenting the lessons from Malaysia for other developing countries in improving their public-sector management. These lessons include those at the center of government, such as the delivery unit method applied to the implementation of the national priorities, or implementing the elements of performance-based budgeting, as well as deeper analysis of specific approaches in various sectors. Strategies for improving public sector performance will differ in education, health, public transport, or land administration. Yet at this sectoral juncture, public sector management has the most direct impact on service delivery and citizens’ outcomes. This report focuses on land policies and land administration services because they are key for good governance. They are fundamental for secure land rights, developing land markets and managing land resources in a manner that best contributes to economic growth, efficient public sector service delivery, environmental protection, and social cohesion and security. Land and buildings generally represent between half and three quarters of the national wealth in all countries. The importance of secure land rights and good land administration have been recognized in several international forums including the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the United Nations Committee on Food Security and the World Bank and International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Fit for Purpose Land Administration publication.
  • Publication
    From Pork to Performance
    (World Bank, Washington, DC and AidData, 2016-06) Custer, Samantha; Rahemtulla, Hanif; Kaiser, Kai-Alexander; van den Brink, Rogier
    From pork to performance illuminates the politics of how public resources are spent and the difficulty of the ‘last mile’ of service delivery. Crumbling facilities, absentee teachers, and roads to nowhere waste resources and retard development in many countries around the world. These failures in last mile service delivery underscore a more intractable development problem, a breakdown in accountability relationships, as politicians and civil servants act with impunity to extract private benefits at the expense of public goods. This study examines the extent to which technology and transparency can disrupt this low accountability status quo through turning information into collective action to improve government performance by strengthening the accountability relationships between politicians, service providers and citizens. In 2010, a new president came to power in the Philippines with a compelling message, ‘no corruption, no poverty’, and embraced open government as a vehicle to burn avenues of retreat and advance governance reforms. This study features examples from five sectors, education, reconstruction, roads, municipal development, and tax collection – where government champions sought to open up the black box of service delivery and use digital platforms to disclose data and strengthen accountability. This research provides guidance for public, private, and civil society leaders committed to using technology and transparency to curb pork-barrel politics and create digital dividends for their communities. The study combines rigorous political economy analysis with practical diagnostic tools and recommendations for open government initiatives to go deeper in the Philippines and around the world.
  • Publication
    Republic of the Philippines e-Government Transformation: Open Government Philippines and Open Data Philippines
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-07-01) Capili, Miro Frances
    The Philippines is one of the eight founding members of the open government partnership (OGP) alongside Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Norway, South Africa, United Kingdom, and the United States. The overarching concept of open government recognizes that good governance derives from the principle of transparency by providing an easily accessible, readily usable, and up-to-date online platform of digitized public records. Open data is an important component and commitment area of the OGP. The Philippines developed its first national open government action plan, which detailed nineteen initiatives under four broad outcome areas, from June to September 2011. This paper aims to: (1) document the historical development, key drivers, and milestones of open government Philippines and open data Philippines, and (2) pose recommendations for moving forward with its commitments. It reviews the composition and formation of the open data task force and showcases the features of data.gov.ph. The paper seeks to pose recommendations pertaining to the following areas: (1) release and manage organized, operable, and relevant data; (2) refine technical aspects of open data; (3) institutionalize open data within government; (4) promote civic engagement and stakeholder outreach; and (5) adopt complementary metrics and measures of success. The paper also opens a series of reports on the key stages in the development of the program, including implementation and impact evaluation.
  • Publication
    Implementing Results Based Management in Thailand
    (Washington, DC, 2011-01) World Bank
    Thailand has been pursuing the implementation of results based management techniques in the public sector for over a decade. Leading this task is the Office of the Public Sector Development Commission (OPDC) which has been supporting various agencies and departments in undertaking a wide variety of results based management reforms, including key performance indicators, balanced scorecards, and individual performance bonuses, among others. This report summarizes the results of a two week fact finding mission and a one day workshop conducted by the Office of the Public Sector Development Commission (OPDC) of the Prime Minister's office in collaboration with the World Bank's Public Sector Performance Global Expert Team (PSP-GET) held on September 24, 2010 in Bangkok, Thailand. This report covers the main areas to consider in implementing a results based management system. The report provides an overview of Thailand's Results Based Management (RBM) system, with an emphasis on lessons from international experience in leveraging performance information to deliver results. Chapters on how to link performance with planning and budgeting, as well as an overview of incentives to improve performance are included. Each chapter is loosely structured in the following way: issues identified during discussions; relevant lessons from international experiences; and overall recommendations and findings of the PSP-GET.
  • Publication
    Outsourcing Social Services to CSOs : Lessons from Abroad
    (World Bank, 2009-06-01) Irish, Leon E.; Salamon, Lester M.; Simon, Karla W.
    This study aims to provide the Ministry of Civil Affairs (MoCA) of the People's Republic of China an overview of international experience with the use of direct and indirect, consumer and producer side instruments for engaging civil society organizations in the delivery of government-financed social and human services. The discussion in the report falls into three major parts. Part one offers an overview of the scale of the civil society sector globally and of the extent and patterns of government support for it. Against this backdrop, part two then examines in more detail the experience of particular countries with government-nonprofit cooperation with respect to outsourcing social services. Finally, based on these experiences, the final part offers some suggestions for the Government of China as it seeks to fashion a workable relationship with the emerging Chinese civil society organization (CSO) sector.
  • Publication
    Support to Civil Service Reform in Indonesia : Report from a Programming Mission to Jakarta
    (Washington, DC, 2009-05-07) World Bank
    Civil service reform in Indonesia is needed to sustain the important institutional reform results achieved over the last ten years in various sectors and policy areas and to further consolidate Indonesia as a progressing middle income country. This report summarizes a mission to Indonesia on February 2-13, 2009. The purpose of the mission was to i) map, describe and assess current approach and status of ongoing civil service reform initiatives in selected central government institutions; ii) make recommendations related to scope, focus and approach of continued reforms; and iii) propose to the Government of Indonesia (GOI) a World Bank program of assistance in support of the government's reform agenda. The report is intended to provide a basis for a decision within the Bank on whether and how to continue and scale up an engagement on civil service reform in Indonesia. Aligned with the three objectives, the mission report first provides an introduction to the political economy of civil service reform in Indonesia and an overview and profile of ongoing reform initiatives. It then analyses key civil service challenges, using the dimension in the draft framework for Actionable Governance Indicators as a point of departure. Finally, a possible program for donor support is presented in light of the analysis of key challenges and the political economy of reform.
  • Publication
    Operationalizing the Central Government Transfer Intercept Mechanism
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008-09) Oosterman, Andre
    In October 2004, the Government of Indonesia (GOI) issued law 33/2004 concerning the Fiscal Balance between the central government and the regional governments. Like its predecessor, law 25-1999, the law stipulates a series of administrative sanctions that the Government may impose on regional governments that do not comply with certain of its provisions. These sanctions will take the form of a deferment or cut, depending on the specific nature of the non-compliance, in the general allocation (Dana Alokasi Umum or DAU) or shared revenues (Dana Bagi Hasil or DBH) to which the region would otherwise be entitled. The Ministry of Finance (MoF) is currently preparing a decree to operationalize this so-called intercept mechanism, and has requested the Decentralization Support Facility (DSF) to provide advice on the development of an effective DAU and DBH intercept mechanism. This final report presents the findings of a consultant ("the Consultant") contracted by DSF to provide this advice. Chapter two discusses administrative requirements to decrees and regulations that govern the allocation of DAU and DBH to regional governments, to ensure that the intercept mechanism remains effective. Chapter three describes the key features of an accounting mechanism that directs intercepted funds to the treasury, and remits the balance of the transfer to the defaulting regional government. The annex to this report contains the results of simulations the consultant has performed at the request of DJPK since the publication of the interim report.