Other Public Sector Study

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  • Publication
    Identification for Development Country Diagnostic: Uganda
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-11-01) World Bank
    In today’s digital age, robust, inclusive, and responsible civil registration and identification systems play an important role in providing citizens with a legal identity and generating vital and demographic statistics. Universal coverage of these systems improves the accessibility, integrity, effectiveness, and efficiency of public and private services. Experience in Estonia, India, Peru, South Africa, Thailand, and other countries has shown that an effective national identification system can accelerate progress in addressing key development and governance challenges, such as financial inclusion, universal healthcare coverage, and digitizing and integrating services in the public and private sectors. The ID4D diagnostic was undertaken between November 2017 and June 2018 at the request from the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Government of Uganda under the umbrella of the World Bank’s Identification for Development (ID4D) initiative.This work was done with excellent collaboration from NIRA’s management and personnel. Its objective was to analyze the identification ecosystem in Uganda, highlight strengths and achievements, suggest areas of improvement, and build consensus around recommendations and next steps. This was done through in-person interviews with over40 government and private stakeholders, a field visit, and a literature review. Draft findings and recommendations were presented at a consultation workshop in August 2018, attended by over 50 experts representing 30 MDAs and private sector organizations. Feedback from the workshop is reflected in the report.
  • Publication
    Realizing the Devolution Dividend in Kenya through Cohesive Public Finance Management and Public Participation at County Level: Challenges, Lessons Learned, and Recommendations
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-08) Wanjiru, Rose; Otsola, Paul; Kangu, Mutakha; Werunga, Murumba; Owuor, Christine; Omolo, Annette
    This report covers four areas that had been identified by County officers from both the County Executive and the County Assembly as areas that have brought conflict and disharmony in Counties. These issues and challenges cut across Public Finance Management (PFM), public participation, functions and powers of the County actors and formed the basis for capacity building and training intervention that was provided through the Council of Governors (CoG) and Kenya School of Government (KSG) with the support from the Kenya Accountable Devolution Program (KADP). This brief report highlights the issues and challenges identified in four thematic areas and then provides the identified good practices and lessons learned that can be considered and implemented by County Governments. The first chapter discusses the PFM legal framework with reference to the fundamental processes of planning, budgeting, revenue, expenditure, and financial reporting and relates these to identified areas of conflict that are experienced while executing various PFM processes. The chapter also makes corresponding recommendations for good PFM practices in Counties. The second chapter highlights the challenges that County Governments have experienced in rolling out public participation and provides conceptual clarification and examples of good practices. The third chapter highlights areas that were recurring areas of misunderstanding and misinterpretation with regard to the Constitution and legislative framework on devolution (especially relating to functions and powers of the County Executive and County Assembly). Further, it articulates the Constitutional framework and interpretations of key provisions covering those areas of concern to facilitate common understanding that would help reduce recurring operational disharmony and conflicts. The fourth chapter highlights challenges that the County assemblies experience while executing their responsibilities with regard to fiscal matters and suggests good practices that should address these. This report is intended to be a simple, practical, go-to reference resource for County Executives and County Assemblies on common challenges that they experience while executing their roles and responsibilities and suggests good practices that can help them navigate through the challenges.
  • Publication
    The Role of Local Governments in Promoting Local Economic Development in Uganda
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-06) World Bank Group
    While Uganda has a long history of decentralized service delivery, and has instituted Local Economic Development (LED) as an additional mandate for local governments (LGs), there has been less progress in operationalizing the concept and practically implementing it across LGs in Uganda. In addition to their basic service delivery functions enshrined in the Local Governments Act of 1997, since 2006 LGs are also mandated by various policy documents to play a role in wealth creation, and increasing citizens’ income levels. While the Government of Uganda (GoU)’s LED Policy does outline the strategic intervention areas that LGs should implement, there is still considerable confusion among LG staff as to what this entails on a day to day basis and there has been limited progress in implementation. At the request of the MoLG, the World Bank, therefore, commissioned this assignment in support of the Government of Uganda (GoU's) efforts to improve the capacities of LGs for promoting LED. The study focused on assessing three localities (Jinja Municipality, and Arua and Nwoya Districts), both in terms of their local economic potentials and enabling environment for business, as well as in terms of the institutional and policy context for promoting LED. The study used quantitative methodologies, to identify promising economic sectors in the three localities, as well as qualitative methodologies to identify the main constraints that those sectors currently face.
  • Publication
    Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia: Evaluation of MDGs Specific Purpose Grant to Regions
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-03-29) World Bank
    Ethiopia is a highly decentralized country. Presently, sub-national government taxes and revenues account for about 28 percent of general taxes and revenues, and sub-national expenditures amount to 51 percent of general government expenditures. The ensuing vertical mismatch is bridged by grants from the Federal government to the regions. Presently, these grants account for 57 percent of sub-national expenditures1. For many years, these grants consisted mostly of a block grant (the Federal General Purpose Grant) given without any strings attached, which means the regions could use it as they wished. The rest of the report is organized as follows. Section two provides the policy context that is the information, data, evolutions, etc. specific to Ethiopia, which are necessary to understand and interpret the MDGs grant policy. Section three present and discusses the policy content that is the components of the policy previously identified. Section four is a policy assessment, which utilizes the evaluation framework proposed above to analyze the relationships between the various components of the policy, and discuss its efficiency, its effectiveness and its success. Section five is a conclusion that summarizes the analysis, and attempts, prudently and modestly, to outline some potential avenues for future action.
  • Publication
    Basic Requirements for Public Participation in Kenya’s Legal Framework
    (World Bank Group, Washington, DC, 2015-02) Nizam, Rabya; Muriu, Abraham Rugo; International Budget Partnership
    Kenya has embarked on a highly ambitious decentralization that seeks to fundamentally change the relationship between government and citizens under the 2010 Constitution. The Constitution and new legal framework place a strong emphasis on strengthening public participation. This working paper seeks to distill key provisions in the legislative framework related to transparency, accountability and participation in county government, in particular the planning and budgeting cycle, and present them in a format that is useful for county planners, executive and assembly members. It can be used as a guide for how counties can interface with citizens based on Kenya’s legislative framework.
  • Publication
    Integrating Social Accountability in Healthcare Delivery: Lessons Drawn from Kenya
    (World Bank Group, Washington, DC, 2015-02) Wangũi Machira, Yvonne
    The Constitution of Kenya provides that most functions of the state are decentralized in a devolution process. The devolved health system is four tiered: community health services, primary care services, county referral services, and national referral services. However, even though roles and responsibilities are elaborately outlined, in practice the transition from national to county governments has been marred by inconsistency, poor understanding of the system, management challenges, and lack of coordination between the national and county governments. This policy note provides observations from a pilot that tested integration of social accountability mechanisms in healthcare delivery in Kenya between 2011 and 2013.
  • Publication
    Participation in Kenya’s Local Development Funds: Reviewing the Past to Inform the Future
    (World Bank Group, Washington, DC, 2015-02) Finch, Chistopher
    Kenya's new Constitution mandates a new era of public participation in government, particularly within the devolved government structure. The new devolved structures can benefit from reviewing the country's prior experience with participation in decentralized funds. The Kenyan government and citizens gained extensive experience in local participatory development through decentralized programs and funds, in particular the local authority transfer fund (LATF) and the constituency development fund (CDF). This paper focuses on the two development funds because participatory initiatives both by the government and the civil society were centered on them. This paper reviews Kenya's past experiences on public participation in local service delivery to highlight practical lessons that county governments can draw from as they design participation mechanisms.
  • Publication
    Kenya Devolution Working Paper Series: Summary Overview
    (World Bank Group, Washington, DC, 2015-02) Kenya School of Government; World Bank
    Kenya has embarked on a highly ambitious decentralization that seeks to fundamentally change the relationship between government and citizens under the 2010 Constitution. The Constitution seeks to shift government from centralized to decentralized, and from "top-down" to "bottom-up". The Constitution and new legal framework place a strong emphasis on strengthening public participation. Strengthening public participation and governance is a core element in Kenya's strategy to accelerate growth and address long-standing inequalities in economic opportunities, investment, and service delivery in different parts of the country.
  • Publication
    One Year On: Review of Country Initiatives in Public Participation in the Roll Out of Devolution
    (World Bank Group, Washington, DC, 2015-02) Nizam, Rabya; Muriu, Abraham Rugo
    The roll-out of devolution has been formally underway since March 2013 when county governments were established under the 2010 Constitution. The period under review is April 2013 to June 2014, which enables observations of public engagement in preparation of the 2013-2014 county budgets (between April-June 2013) and the 2014-2015 county budgets (between September 2013-June 2014). This paper reviews initial county initiatives on public participation and possible interventions to improve the overall design and implementation of participatory systems going forward.
  • Publication
    Practical Approaches for County Governments to Facilitate Public Participation in the Planning and Budget Process
    (World Bank Group, Washington, DC, 2015-02) Omolo, Annette
    Kenya's new Constitution and supportive legal framework contain multiple provisions requiring both national government and counties to make information publicly available and consult with citizens in planning and budgeting. Citizen participation affords county governments an opportunity to empower citizens on their operations and to deliberate, debate, and influence the allocation of public resources. This working paper presents practical approaches for Kenyan counties to implement public participation in their systems that encourage meaningful public engagement.