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PublicationPractical Approaches for County Governments to Facilitate Public Participation in the Planning and Budget Process(World Bank Group, Washington, DC, 2015-02) Omolo, AnnetteKenya's new Constitution and supportive legal framework contain multiple provisions requiring both national government and counties to make information publicly available and consult with citizens in planning and budgeting. Citizen participation affords county governments an opportunity to empower citizens on their operations and to deliberate, debate, and influence the allocation of public resources. This working paper presents practical approaches for Kenyan counties to implement public participation in their systems that encourage meaningful public engagement. PublicationBuilding Public Participation in Kenya’s Devolved Government(World Bank Group, Washington, DC, 2015-02) Finch, Christopher; Omolo, AnnetteKenya has embarked on a highly ambitious decentralization that seeks to fundamentally change the relationship between government and citizens under the 2010 Constitution. The Constitution and new legal framework place a strong emphasis on strengthening public participation. This paper summarizes findings and analysis from five working papers and case studies reviewing opportunities and challenges for strengthening public participation in Kenya’s newly decentralized system. It provides a consolidated list of recommendations emerging from all the working papers. PublicationDecentralization, Accountability and Local Services in Sierra Leone : Situation Analysis, Key Challenges and Opportunities for Reform(Washington, DC, 2014-04-02) World BankFollowing years of civil war that ended in 2002, Sierra Leone has pursued a policy of decentralization, devolving responsibility for many government functions to the Local Council level. The aims of this policy include achieving a more equitable and inclusive access to public services across the national territory, in part to alleviate regional inequities that contributed to the civil war. The implementation of the decentralization policy has faced many obstacles, however, including the need to rebuild local government institutions and capacity after 30 years of centrally dominated governance; the limited devolution of financial resources; and multifaceted political economy hurdles. This report, first, analyzes the current state of decentralization in Sierra Leone; second, identifies the most prominent challenges to continued decentralization; and, third, discusses options for the way forward. The report draws on qualitative and quantitative data collected from both central and local government stakeholders, and takes the perspective that decentralization and strengthened local governance institutions are an effective means to localize development and improve the effective and equitable delivery of key public services. The study focuses on progress to date and standing challenges in four key areas of analysis: fiscal decentralization, human resource decentralization, ensuring inclusivity and accountability in local governance, and ensuring efficiency and responsiveness in service delivery. PublicationEthiopia Public Sector Reform Approach : Building the Developmental State - A Review and Assessment of the Ethiopian Approach to Public Sector Reform(Washington, DC, 2013-08-29) World BankThe objective of this report is to review and recommend improvements to Ethiopia's approach to public sector reform in order to advise the Government and executive institutions on the future of its public sector reform. The report also serves as a think piece for the World Bank, other partners, and policy makers. The report provides important basic information about the features of Ethiopia's public sector reform approach and reviews what worked well and what did not. It draws lessons from other countries' experience to help develop ideas and instruments of future public sector reforms in Ethiopia. Ethiopia's system of decentralization process has been credible in devolving power, improving governance and service delivery well as narrowing the per capital differences among Regional Governments and districts. The second phase of decentralization was 'big bang' and brought some gaps on addressing administrative and fiscal decentralization issues associated with: a) detailed clarity of expenditure and revenue assignments, b) shortage of skilled manpower and lack of incentive in remote areas and inadequate budget for recruitment , c) building local government specific purpose fiscal transfer, d) local government mandate on Public Sector Reform (PSR) and capacity building and e) transfers and f)decentralizing more decision making power to regional states on deciding financial resource for PSR and capacity building implementation. In an effort to link the incentive and pay mechanisms to performance in the civil service, the Ministry of Civil Service (MoCS) has prepared a draft incentive guideline and is waiting for its approval by the Council of Ministers; it is an important step to the way forward. In the future, the guideline has to reflect a systematic and comprehensive incentive and pay reform and performance mechanism and rolled out as it is a prerequisite to the PSR. PublicationDevolution without Disruption: Pathways to a Successful New Kenya(World Bank, Nairobi, 2012-11) World BankKenya's new constitution marks a critical juncture in the nation's history. It is widely perceived, by Kenyans from all walks of life, as a new beginning. Indeed, many feel that post- independence Kenya has been characterized by centralization of political and economic power in the hands of a few, resulting in an uneven and unfair distribution of resources and corresponding access to social services; the opposite of an inclusive state. Born of the political opportunity created by the 2008 post-election violence, the constitution finally adopted, after almost a decade of unsuccessful reform attempts, presages far-reaching changes. Its vision encompasses a dramatic transformation of the Kenyan state through new accountable and transparent institutions, inclusive approaches to government and a firm focus on equitable service delivery for all Kenyans through the newly established county governments. Devolution is at the heart of the new constitution and a key vehicle for addressing spatial inequities. A more decentralized government makes eminent sense, given Kenya's diversity and experience with political use of central power. Decentralization has been increasingly seen and adopted worldwide as a guarantee against discretionary use of power by central elites as well as a way to enhance the efficiency of social service provision, by allowing for a closer match between public policies and the desires and needs of local constituencies. Kenya's constitution entrenches devolved government by guaranteeing a minimum unconditional transfer to counties under the new dispensation. The devolution train has already left the station: the challenge is to make sure it arrives at destination, safely and on time. The politics of devolution explain the high intensity of hopes and expectations that have been pinned to it. It also means there are high risks if they are disappointed. There are great opportunities and enormous challenges waiting for Kenya, in a critical election year, which will determine the fate of the country, politically and economically for years to come. This report takes a snapshot look at the critical issues facing Kenya's policy makers today. It does not argue for or against devolution (a decision that belongs solely to Kenyans), but presents suggestions and recommendations on how best to navigate the tough choices ahead. It's main focus in on helping Kenya manage a delicate transition. PublicationGuinea - Decentralization in Guinea : Strengthening Accountability for Better Service Delivery(Washington, DC, 2008-09) World BankThe purpose of this report is to present reform options for the implementation of the new code that would strengthen accountability in service delivery. The report is structured as follows: chapter one discusses how decentralization can be an effective tool for improving service delivery and local governance. Chapter two assesses progress in fiscal, administrative and political decentralization, scrutinizes their impact on accountability relationships and makes recommendations to further decentralization, in line the new code. Chapter three analyses current arrangements for service delivery in two sectors (water and education), maps out strengths and weaknesses of existing accountability relationships and makes recommendations, drawing on existing innovative practices in Guinea and/or the region. Chapter four offers recommendations to manage change and maintain the momentum for reform. Chapter five concludes with an outlook. PublicationDarfur - Dimensions of Challenge for Development : Background Volume(Washington, DC, 2007-06-29) World BankThis background volume is not about the recent conflict, nor the humanitarian situation in Darfur today. Rather, it adopts a longer term perspective in an attempt to understand the range of underlying structural obstacles to growth and prosperity in the region. The World Bank, in collaboration with a range of stakeholders, has investigated the nature and extent of the underlying structural obstacles to the region's development. This background volume presents the results of the work of several teams, drawing on primary and secondary sources and field work undertaken in the latter half of 2006. The aim is to help re-establish a knowledge base across multiple dimensions, to inform future development planning oriented toward broad-based growth and attainment of the millennium development goals. The report provides a diagnosis of existing constraints: the basic thesis is that redressing marginalization is central to effectively overcome the challenges to peace and prosperity in the region, and thus in the Sudan overall. The immense challenges facing Darfur reflect not only the immediate conflict, but a series of major structural factors that can be traced back over decades. Of foremast importance is the failure of national policies and development projects to promote broad-based development and good governance. Geographic and demographic factors, in particular increasing desertification, periodic droughts and rapid population growth - have exemplified the, challenges, but the underlying failure of institutions to function in ways that are accountable to the people, and conducive to pro-poor development, plays a critical explanatory role. PublicationMadagascar : Decentralization(Washington, DC, 2003-11-05) World BankThe objective of this decentralization study is to provide analysis and policy advice to the new Malagasy government on how to proceed with the decentralization strategy it inherited from the previous government. The end of the post-crisis emergency recovery period creates the opportunity to correct the weaknesses of the previous strategy while building on the exiting achievements. The paper specifically aims to (i) analyze the institutional and fiscal context of decentralization and (ii) present the resulting challenges for service delivery and financing - with a particular focus on local governments. Benefiting from primary data from several hundred local governments, this study aims at proving recommendations of how to improve the functioning of communes in considering the institutional and fiscal parameters. The report is organized into four chapters, including the Introduction, which explain the political, institutional, and fiscal determinants that have been influencing Madagascar's decentralization process, and which will continue to do so in the future. Chapter 2 provides the political and institutional background needed to better understand the decentralization context of today. The chapter analyzes the historical forces of centralization, which date back to pre-colonial times and translate into today's dominant role of the central government administration. The chapter then takes a closer look at the existing administrative set-up to explain functions and responsibilities at different levels of government. To this end, it looks at the regulatory gaps and inconsistencies in the legal framework, the parallelism between decentralized and deconcentrated layers, and the emerging role of inter- communal associations and informal regional planning bodies. Based on the concept of the sub-national fiscal gap, chapter 3 analyzes structural constraints to fiscal decentralization in Madagascar, and in particular the dominance of revenue items which cannot be decentralized. Given the l o w degree of fiscal decentralization, the chapter takes a closer look at expenditure deconcentration and provides a more in-depth analysis of deconcentration in the health and education sectors. The last part of the chapter evaluates Madagascar's intergovernmental transfers, which represent the most important source of local government financing. Communes are the lowest and institutionally most advanced level of sub-national government in Madagascar. They are also the main focus of this study. The fourth chapter describes the institutional dynamics at the local level to provide the ground for a thorough analysis of local government finance. The chapter provides an estimate of local needs, and analyzes revenue and expenditure patterns based on budget data of a large sample of rural communes. PublicationSierra Leone : Strategic Options for Public Sector Reform(Washington, DC, 2003-08-05) World BankThe purpose of this paper is to outline strategic options for the reform of the public sector. The strategic options will be based upon an analysis of the public sector emerging from the civil war, and a longer period of deterioration and decline. The strategy will be expressed in very broad-brush form; detailed planning will only be possible once the basic strategic decisions have been taken. Years of corrupt, and ineffective government, causing - as well as compounded by - civil war, have left Sierra Leone with poor access to basic services, especially outside Freetown, with substantial dependence on NGOs. Expenditure management is weak; there is no effective accountability; human capacity is weak throughout the public service; and, the management of policy, and programs is highly centralized in Freetown, and in the Office of the President, and the Ministry of Finance. Nonetheless, there is now a strong consensus in favor of reforming the policy process, expenditure management, and accountability. And, there is an ever stronger determination to decentralize the delivery of basic services. The "options" concern the rate of decentralization. But, there is little worldwide experience to suggest that rapid devolution can work in terms of improving service delivery. Sierra Leone will need to be creative about the capacity issue: capacity does not have to be produced by the public sector, but capacity existing elsewhere can be effectively utilized by the public sector. So the recommended option is to act aggressively to build capacity to support the soon-to-be newly elected local councils. And to be sure to allocate the funds needed to support their responsibilities for basic service delivery, which would be expanded as the councils demonstrate their capacity to perform. PublicationThe United Republic of Tanzania : Decentralisation Sector Work(Washington, DC, 2001-05-04) World BankThe primary objectives of the Tanzania Decentralization Sector Work (DSW) are: To develop a strategic analysis of the decentralization process in Tanzania, commonly known as the Local Government Reform Programme (LGRP); and on this basis, to formulate proposals regarding a) the orientation of the World Bank towards the LGRP and the modalities of the Bank's potential involvement in the Programme, and b) appropriate responses by the Bank at the project level in those sectors affected by the LGRP. The DSW is intended to enhance the Bank's understanding of developments in the decentralization theme area and to optimize Bank decision-making regarding its involvement here. It also aims to assist the Bank in structuring its projects such that the impact of the decentralization process is taken into proper account.