Other Public Sector Study

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  • Publication
    The Evolving Role of the Planning Function: International Experience and Reform Options for India
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-11-01) World Bank
    This note presents the main trends in strategic planning across public sector administrations in seven countries: Australia, Canada, Brazil, Mexico, Malaysia, South Korea, and Colombia. It was prepared in response to the Indian Government's interest in understanding the emerging trends in the evolution of strategic planning in a range of countries and effectively adapting this function across public administration at the national and subnational levels.
  • Publication
    Opportunities and Challenges for Public Procurement in the First Months of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Results From an Experts Survey
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-19) World Bank
    The COVID-19 pandemic created unprecedented circumstances and challenges in many dimensions, without clear ex ante directions and guidance on the best strategies for coping with the emergency, including in public procurement. As a result, especially in the first months of the pandemic, governments responded to the COVID-19 crisis in myriad ways. To rationalize and take stock of these diverse experiences and challenges, the World Bank’s Procurement and Standards Global Unit and Development Impact Evaluation (DIME) unit conducted an International Survey of Procurement Specialists and Experts to document the legal and administrative framework for national emergency public procurement in the first months after the global COVID-19 outbreak. The survey was implemented between May and August 2020 and received 136 contributions covering 103 countries. The authors find that (a) some countries relied more heavily on high-risk procedures than on the procedures considered critical for effective and efficient emergency procurement; (b) lack of clarity on procurement needs and lack of coordination were significant bottlenecks experienced by most surveyed countries; (c) transparency and accountability standards deteriorated for COVID-19-related procurement relative to standard procurement; and (d) e-procurement, lessons from previous emergencies, and the quality of institutions are factors that enable national procurement systems to respond in a timely and effective manner to emergencies such as the COVID-19 crisis. Using these results, authors provide policy recommendations to guide countries to prepare and adapt their national procurement systems to respond to critical emergencies such as the COVID-19 crisis.
  • Publication
    Creating Disability-Inclusive ID System
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-11-17) World Bank
    Access to identification is a vital priority. In developing countries, persons with disabilities are among those most likely to face barriers in accessing government services such as health and rehabilitation, public transportation, education, voting, financial services, and economic opportunities. For women and girls with disabilities and other persons with disabilities with intersecting identities, these barriers are multidimensional. Addressing poverty among persons with disabilities and their families requires solutions that address their differentiated and sometimes complex needs, a precondition of which is possessing official proof of identity. This report provides a model of the continuous nature of the ID lifecycle, suggesting some illustrative approaches to designing a disability-inclusive ID process at any stage in the lifecycle. The ID lifecycle comprises five phases, each allowing for disability-inclusive interventions. The five phases are: (1) planning and design; (2) outreach and engagement; (3) enrollment; (4) use of ID; (5) and monitoring and evaluation. The cycle presents examples of continuous activities which should be regularly revisited to ensure that ID systems are accessible to people with disabilities regardless of the stage of implementation of the ID system. While not exhaustive, and recognizing that country contexts differ, this cyclical model can be a useful planning tool, much like that used across the world by electoral commissions for inclusive voter registration.
  • Publication
    Chatbots for Third-Party Monitoring: CivicTech Pilot in Madagascar
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-06) Rakotomalala, Olivia; Peixoto, Tiago; Kumagai, Saki
    Growing evidence confirms that citizen engagement is key to improving the delivery and quality of public services, management of public finances, and to promoting social inclusion, resulting in tangible improvements in people’s lives. The advent and availability of new technologies provide new opportunities to reach citizens, aggregate their ‘voice’ and demand, help governments respond, and partner with citizens to find and implement solutions collectively. With the right approach, CivicTech enables citizens to overcome income, social, and geographical barriers to interact with governments and participate at the local or national level. The CivicTech pilot in Madagascar supported the development of a Facebook ChatBot (bot) to enable third-party monitoring of service delivery operations for the Madagascar Public Sector Performance Project (PAPSP, P150116). A similar approach could be replicated for Community Driven Development (CDD) projects and local government and decentralized service delivery projects to achieve a multi-channel structure for third-party monitoring (offline, mobile, and web). The note documents the CivicTech pilot experience in Madagascar and lessons learned.
  • Publication
    Citizen Engagement in Operations: A Stock-Take of Citizen Engagement in Development Policy Financing
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-06) Kumagai, Saki
    Guided by the 2014 Strategic Framework for Mainstreaming Citizen Engagement in World Bank Group Operations, the World Bank supports policies, programs, projects, and advisory services and analytics where citizen engagement (CE) can improve development results. While the corporate commitment to mainstream CE targets investment operations, the World Bank teams continue to explore CE in other instruments. Engaging Citizens for Better Development Results, a report by the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), assessed the Bank Group’s efforts to mainstream CE. It recommends the World Bank “encourage and support efforts of its regional, country, and Global Practices teams to establish, where appropriate, thick CE that is regular and continuous, uses multiple tools, and is embedded in country systems.” It also suggests this objective could be achieved by more systematically using existing channels of dialogue and stakeholder engagement, including that of Development Policy Financing (DPF), and applying tools at the various levels. Given this context, this Governance Note aims to take stock of existing CE practice in DPF by shedding light on the prior action usage.
  • Publication
    Freedom of Information Access: Key Challenges, Lessons Learned and Strategies for Effective Implementation
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-06-01) World Bank
    Implementation of the right to information as established in a Freedom of Information Access (FOIA) Law provides a foundation for institutionalization of transparency and support for anti-corruption efforts. Passage of a FOIA law is only a first step toward accessibility of data and documents held by public agencies, however. Effective implementation of a FOIA requires that public agencies take additional steps to put laws into practice and overcome common implementation challenges that can render FOIA laws ineffective. This note, which builds on previous World Bank research on factors determining effective implementation of FOIA laws, reviews cases of introduction of FOIA laws around the world and summarizes the main challenges, lessons learned and key strategies emerging from these experiences. Its primary aim is to inform Italian public agencies charged with implementation of the FOIA law about steps they can take toward effective implementation. As such, it focuses on areas of activity typically within the purview of public agencies, as opposed to those typically in scope of policymakers or central agencies charged with implementation and/or legislative oversight of FOIA.
  • Publication
    Bangladesh Right To Information Survey 2019
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020) World Bank
    The year 2019 marks the tenth year of the Right to Information (RTI) act enactment in Bangladesh. The Government of Bangladesh (GoB) has made good progress in implementing the RTI Act 2009 in the past decade. The RTI survey was conducted between January and March of 2019. The survey results reveal that the contribution of the RIT Act 2009 has overall been positive in the last decade. Especially, notable progress has taken place in making the supply side prepared in implementing the RTI Act. The survey will enable policymakers and RTI activists to identify and seal the pores and bring about the desired changes in perception, behavior, and actions of various stakeholders, including the citizens.
  • Publication
    Mainstreaming Citizen Engagement in Public Financial Management for Better Results
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-12-01) Kumagai, Saki; Bandyopadhyay, Sruti; Grandvoinnet, Helene
    Public financial management (PFM) is fundamental for effective resource management and the backbone for effective and efficient public service delivery. Citizen engagement (CE) in the PFM cycle contributes to achieving better development outcomes by mobilizing citizens in the PFM process, supporting more inclusive budget processes, and establishing pro-poor fiscal policies. Based on a desk review, this note is intended to provide a menu of CE entry points in the PFM cycle and serve as a reference guide to support World Bank task teams. It indicates that CE in PFM needs to move beyond transparency to achieve development objectives; budget literacy for inclusive CE is critical for both government and citizens; and two polarized types of engagement in PFM — engagement with the general public and engagement with small, selected, and specialized groups for in-depth feedback — are complementary to each other in achieving effective budget outcomes.
  • Publication
    Improving Public Sector Performance: Through Innovation and Inter-Agency Coordination
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-10) World Bank Group
    This report is an inaugural issue in a new series that aims to offer a fresh look at how developing countries are overcoming persistent problems in public sector management. Significant improvements in public sector performance are being evidenced across the developing world today, as government officials and political leaders find new and innovative ways to tackle long-standing challenges. Part I of this report demonstrates that public sector performance is being pursued diligently and successfully across a variety of country contexts, including in low-income environments. Through surveying its governance specialists from around the globe, the World Bank has assembled a collection of 15 cases that showcase how lessons from global experience are being adapted and applied in practice. The report also explores common success drivers that appear in each of the cases. Part II focuses on a special, cross-cutting topic that is critical to public sector performance -- policy and inter-agency coordination. As the responsibilities of government have grown in volume and complexity, policy and program coordination has become ever more challenging, and the stakes have never been higher. Enhancing coordination will depend not only on the adopted formal institutional mechanisms, but also on their interplay with the broader institutional environment and with other processes that influence coordination.
  • Publication
    Republic of Azerbaijan: Corporate Governance and Ownership of State Owned Enterprises
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-11) World Bank
    This Technical Note assesses the corporate governance of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) in Azerbaijan with a view to supporting the government’s efforts to bolster economic development. Mutually reinforcing recommendations are closely linked and aim to increase accountability across the whole ownership structure of SOEs, from their ultimate owners, the citizens, to their employees. The Note outlines international good practice, summarizes current practices in Azerbaijan, and indicates areas for consideration to improve SOE corporate governance in Azerbaijan. The Note was prepared by a World Bank Group team, based on research and consultations during January - October 2017, to (i) analyze current SOE governance frameworks and practices in Azerbaijan and identify main deviations from international good practices; and (ii) develop a series of policy recommendations for further reforms in strengthening SOEs governance and improving their effectiveness. This work may serve as a basis for further collaboration between the World Bank and the Government of Azerbaijan towards SOE reform and related policy considerations. Given the significance of SOEs and a range of important socio-economic and political-economy related factors, improving SOEs governance in Azerbaijan is a significant challenge. Implementation of any of the recommendations contained in this Note should form part of a broader strategy for SOEs linked to economic and sector strategies in Azerbaijan. This Note aims to build on the priorities outlined by the Strategic Roadmaps for the national economy and main economic sectors of Azerbaijan for 2016-2020, signed by the President of Azerbaijan on December 6, 2016. The Roadmaps re-affirm Azerbaijan’s priorities in diversification of its oil-dominant economy, reduce the State’s participation in the existing state-owned enterprises, and enable more private sector led growth.