Other Public Sector Study

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  • Publication
    Delivering Together: Using Indonesia's Village Law to Optimize Frontline Service Delivery
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-08-19) World Bank
    Over the past twenty years, Indonesia has pursued an ambitious policy agenda for decentralization. Indonesia's subnational governments play a key role in providing frontline services. In 2014, Indonesia's Village Law ushered in a new chapter in the country's decentralization agenda. The law establishes a legal and financial foundation for villages to contribute to Indonesia's rural development. In 2020, village transfers accounted for around ten percent of all subnational transfers, playing an important role in Indonesia's Coronavirus (COVID-19) response strategy. Despite these positive results, several frontier issues in the overall decentralization agenda hinder villages' contributing potential to improving frontline service delivery. This report categorizes these structural challenges into four broad categories of regulatory challenges, coordination gaps, limited capacity building systems, and fragmentation in accountability systems. The report aims to show how overcoming these structural challenges can enable the government to institutionalize systems of accountability and participation into its wider service delivery framework.
  • Publication
    Mapping Indonesia’s Civil Service
    (World Bank, Jakarta, 2018-05-21) World Bank
    Indonesia’s civil service has expanded by 25 percent in the last 12 years, which presents opportunities for the government of Indonesia (GoI) to work toward the goal of reducing poverty and enhancing social welfare. Yet civil servants must be skilled, knowledgeable, and effective at their jobs to maximize their contribution to society and the economy. This report examines an original data set constructed from GoI data on all the country’s active civil servants to examine personal characteristics including age, gender, education level (which proxies for skill), and promotions. It addresses two important questions: 1. Are highly skilled and knowledgeable workers currently being attracted, recruited, and promoted?; 2. Are civil servants from historically underrepresented groups, including women, being given equal opportunities for advancement and promotion? The study recommends government action in three policy areas: 1. Increase promotion opportunities for women and increase their overall representation in senior positions; 2. Distribute skilled civil servants more evenly throughout the country by improving the incentives for highly skilled service providers to rotate into poor and remote regions; 3. Plan for the upcoming wave of retirements within the civil service by recruiting more women from top universities and hiring medical and teaching staff only from licensed and accredited institutions.
  • Publication
    The Need, Capacity and Willingness of Regional Governments to Finance Public Infrastructure from Long-Term Loans
    (Washington, DC, 2011-06) World Bank
    This report reviews the need for long-term loans for regional governments, assesses the capacity of regional governments to repay long-term loans, identifies existing constraints to long-term borrowing by the regions, and recommends options for removing or mitigating existing constraints. The Government of Indonesia issued a government regulation on regional borrowing and unlike its legal predecessor, the newer regulation allows regional governments to borrow long term for public infrastructure projects that are indirectly revenue-generating, such as roads and flood control systems. Until the late 1990s, a major portion of long-term loans to regional governments was financed by international financial institutions, mainly the Asian Development Bank and the World Bank. In view of the need to increase investments in public infrastructure, and the absence of a domestic market for long-term financing, Government of Indonesia is currently considering re-opening this window by establishing a Municipal Development Fund in the Ministry of Finance.
  • Publication
    Support to Civil Service Reform in Indonesia : Report from a Programming Mission to Jakarta
    (Washington, DC, 2009-05-07) World Bank
    Civil service reform in Indonesia is needed to sustain the important institutional reform results achieved over the last ten years in various sectors and policy areas and to further consolidate Indonesia as a progressing middle income country. This report summarizes a mission to Indonesia on February 2-13, 2009. The purpose of the mission was to i) map, describe and assess current approach and status of ongoing civil service reform initiatives in selected central government institutions; ii) make recommendations related to scope, focus and approach of continued reforms; and iii) propose to the Government of Indonesia (GOI) a World Bank program of assistance in support of the government's reform agenda. The report is intended to provide a basis for a decision within the Bank on whether and how to continue and scale up an engagement on civil service reform in Indonesia. Aligned with the three objectives, the mission report first provides an introduction to the political economy of civil service reform in Indonesia and an overview and profile of ongoing reform initiatives. It then analyses key civil service challenges, using the dimension in the draft framework for Actionable Governance Indicators as a point of departure. Finally, a possible program for donor support is presented in light of the analysis of key challenges and the political economy of reform.
  • Publication
    Operationalizing the Central Government Transfer Intercept Mechanism
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008-09) Oosterman, Andre
    In October 2004, the Government of Indonesia (GOI) issued law 33/2004 concerning the Fiscal Balance between the central government and the regional governments. Like its predecessor, law 25-1999, the law stipulates a series of administrative sanctions that the Government may impose on regional governments that do not comply with certain of its provisions. These sanctions will take the form of a deferment or cut, depending on the specific nature of the non-compliance, in the general allocation (Dana Alokasi Umum or DAU) or shared revenues (Dana Bagi Hasil or DBH) to which the region would otherwise be entitled. The Ministry of Finance (MoF) is currently preparing a decree to operationalize this so-called intercept mechanism, and has requested the Decentralization Support Facility (DSF) to provide advice on the development of an effective DAU and DBH intercept mechanism. This final report presents the findings of a consultant ("the Consultant") contracted by DSF to provide this advice. Chapter two discusses administrative requirements to decrees and regulations that govern the allocation of DAU and DBH to regional governments, to ensure that the intercept mechanism remains effective. Chapter three describes the key features of an accounting mechanism that directs intercepted funds to the treasury, and remits the balance of the transfer to the defaulting regional government. The annex to this report contains the results of simulations the consultant has performed at the request of DJPK since the publication of the interim report.
  • Publication
    Increases in Surpluses of Regional Governments in Indonesia: An Empirical Analysis
    (Washington, DC, 2008-06) World Bank
    The overall objective of the study is to identify potential causes to the rapid increase in regional government surpluses. It will be shown that regional government surpluses have rapidly increased because of a confluence of three factors: (i) higher than expected revenue, (ii) lower than expected expenditure, and (iii) limited investments in financial assets. The study will identify potential causes for each factor by analyzing differences in actual and budgeted amounts of revenue. This report was presented to representatives of the Ministry of Finance and Decentralization Support Facility (DSF) in a meeting held on 30 May 2008. Comments and corrections of the attendants are reflected in this version of the report.
  • Publication
    Sub-National Performance Incentives in the Intergovernmental Framework: Current Practice and Options for Reform in Indonesia
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008-06) Lewis, Blane D.; Smoke, Paul
    This paper provides background for the Government of Indonesia as it considers if and how to introduce more robust local government performance incentives into the intergovernmental fiscal framework. The next section briefly examines the forces that have driven the recent national wave of interest in improving local government performance. This is followed by a review of the relatively limited set of local government performance incentives currently in force in Indonesia. The fourth section provides a conceptual overview of how to think about the possible expansion of local government incentive programs, outlining the potential role(s) of such programs in general and the key issues involved in designing and implementing them. The fifth section tentatively considers a number of options for additional local government incentives in Indonesia that the central government may wish to consider pursuing. The paper concludes with an outline of next steps for moving forward with the possible development of more purposeful and meaningful performance incentives in Indonesia's intergovernmental fiscal framework.
  • Publication
    Exploring Reform Options in Functional Assignment
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008-03-28) Ferrazzi, Gabriele
    Considerable challenges remain in functional assignment in Indonesia - some introduced by the recent revisions, during the second round of reform in the period 2004-2007. The Government of Indonesia (GoI) has accepted the offer from donors to undertake a study to delve more deeply into the progress made to date, the challenges that remain, and the opportunities to fashion a more robust, effective and stable assignment of functions. The study aims to help the GoI and donors in exploring new avenues for reform in this field. The term functional assignment in the study denotes a broad concept that captures the overall architecture of roles between levels of government and the specific construction of functions. The robustness of functional assignment is seen to derive from the judicious choice of elements suited to the local context, particularly how these elements come together to form a sound and consistent architecture. In assessing functional assignment, the study made use of academic and other stakeholder views on both substantive issues and the capacity development approach needed to develop a policy network in this field in the future. The possible supporting role of donors is also indicated, within the discussion of each issue in the main part of the report, and in condensed form at the end of this summary.
  • Publication
    A Note on the Indonesian Sub-National Government Surplus, 2001-2006
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008-01) Lewis, Blane D.
    The Indonesian government has devolved significant expenditure authority to sub-national units since 2001. New sub-national government expenditure assignments have been paid for by a substantial increase in intergovernmental transfers to lower levels of government. The center has decided against devolving any significant new tax authority to the regions, at least for the time being. This note examines some fundamental issues related to these unspent funds. The paper has two particular objectives. First, the paper describes the basic features of sub-national government surplus and reserves since decentralization, including their size and spatial distribution. Second, it seeks to explain the observed variation in surplus across sub-national governments, according to some standard hypotheses. The paper proceeds as follows. First, some basic information regarding the buildup and geographic distribution of sub-national reserves is offered. Second, the methodological approach to the study of sub-national government surpluses is detailed. Third, the results of the econometric examination are presented and discussed. Finally, the note closes with a summary of the main findings and a proposal for some additional research that might be useful in the continuing development of central policy in this area.
  • Publication
    Indonesia : Budget Reform Strategy Priorities
    (International Monetory Fund and the World Bank, Washington, DC, 2007-06) Allen, R.; Eckardt, S.; Jacobs, D.; Kristensen, J.; Lienert, I.; Schiavo-Campo, S.
    This report is designed to assist the authorities develop an overall road map for reforming budget preparation. A specific focus is on the steps to be taken to introduce a medium-term framework for the central government's budget and a performance-based budget. These reforms require important preconditions to be in place, and a substantial change in the culture, incentives and behavior of the public service, and are likely to take several years to complete. Successive Indonesian governments have embarked on various reforms in the budget and public financial management system. New laws for governing budget and planning processes were adopted during 2003-04, which are gradually being implemented. The national development planning agency (BAPPENAS) and spending ministries have developed strategic government and ministerial plans that provide a basis for elaborating the framework for performance measurement and evaluation. Reforms are thus starting from a secure base and can also take advantage of the improved and stable macroeconomic and fiscal conditions, including a low fiscal deficit and a declining government debt ratio.