Other Public Sector Study

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Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa, home to more than 1 billion people, half of whom will be under 25 years old by 2050, is a diverse ...

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    The World Bank's Support for Subnational Governance in Large Federal Countries: Lessons Learned from Argentina, Brazil and Nigeria
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022) Stoykov, Petar Georgiev ; Yilmaz, Serdar
    Limited local tax revenue and low public sector efficiency are two critical problems of public sector management and key constraints for the economic and social development of many subnational governments in large federal countries. To create fiscal space without compromising macroeconomic stability and fiscal sustainability, there is a need for reforms that lead to better use of public resources and improved expenditure efficiency through reforms in budgeting, procurement, and tax administration. This note presents lessons learned from the World Bank’s subnational governance projects in three large federal countries - Argentina, Brazil and Nigeria - between 2008-2017. These lessons learned can be useful in shaping the design of future subnational governance projects in other federal countries, particularly those projects seeking to improve service delivery, public expenditure systems and core governance institutions.
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    Ghana: Enhancing Revenue Mobilization Through Improved Tax Compliance and Administrative Systems
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-11-13) World Bank
    Ghana’s tax collection is low compared with other lower middle-income countries. Non-compliance of tax payments is an urgent issue in Ghana, as the government has been suffering from a widening fiscal deficit and a rising debt burden. Learning from experiences in other countries, this report proposes potential interventions that could improve tax compliance.
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    Ghana Tax Gap Analysis
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-11-13) World Bank
    The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the tax gap in Ghana, and help the Government of Ghana identify the areas where they can increase tax revenue by improving compliance. Tax gap for corporate income tax, import tax, estimated value added tax, and potential tax revenue from formalization of informal firms were investigated.
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    Guinea - Opportunities for Enhanced Domestic Revenue Mobilization: Value-Added Tax and Excise Taxes
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-05-01) World Bank
    Revenue mobilization is a key constraint to economic development in the Republic of Guinea. The government’s five-year development plan (2016-2020) aims at fostering higher and more inclusive growth through public investments that require financing beyond current fiscal capacity. In this context, Guinea is seeking to efficiently raise additional domestic revenues and external investment financing. Development partners are supporting Guinea with technical assistance for revenue mobilization. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the European Union are supporting authorities with direct tax policy, non-tax revenue, and administration issues. The objective of this report is to shed light on indirect taxes, particularly value-added tax (VAT) and excise taxes. The report provides an overview of the main features of tax policy and administration in Guinea, followed by a more detailed analysis of VAT and excise taxes. The focus on indirect taxation is a result of both its significant revenue potential and coordination with other development partners. The analysis presented fills an important gap in the understanding of how Guinea can increase its tax revenues. On VAT, the study finds that addressing policy and administrative constraints can mobilize additional revenues while improving the business climate. On excise taxation, the study finds that existing excise rates are unevenly applied, with scope for raising rates in the future. To systematically address its revenue challenges across all tax types, Guinea should also consider development of a medium-term revenue strategy (MTRS). The report is structured as follows: in the first section, an overview of the evolution and composition of domestic revenues in Guinea is presented. In the second section, VAT is analyzed. The final section reviews excise tax policy and its implementation on international goods and domestic goods.
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    Gabon: Assessment of the Impact of Tobacco Excise Tax Increases on Price, Consumption and Tax Revenue over 2018-2021
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-04-25) World Bank Group
    This report presents the results of the assessment that simulates the fiscal revenue and consumption impact of proposed tobacco tax increases in Gabon in the period 2018–2021.
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    Ethiopia: Modelling the Impact of Tobacco Tax Policy Reforms on Tobacco Use and Domestic Resources Mobilization Under Different Scenarios
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-01-23) World Bank Group
    As part of the ongoing tax policy dialogue with the Government of Ethiopia, the World BankGroup organized a workshop in Addis Ababa, on June 20, 2016, to discuss tobacco use, its healthimpact, and excise taxes on tobacco as a public policy measure to reduce tobacco use, and hencethe risk of ill health, premature mortality, and disability due to tobacco-related diseases, andmobilize additional domestic resources to expand the fiscal capacity of the government, inaccordance with the Financing for Development Addis Ababa Action Agenda. This event wasattended by officials from the Ministry of Health (MOH) and Ministry of Finance & EconomicCooperation (MoFEC). Ethiopia's Health Sector Transformation Plan 2015-2020 lists noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) as one of the major public health challenges facing the country. As in the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, NCDs are expected to become the leading cause of ill health and death by 2030, influenced by rapid urbanization, rapid per capita economic growth, increase in behavioral risk factors (most NCDs are the result of tobacco use, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, and/or the harmful use of alcohol), and improvements in the control of infectious diseases that increase life expectancy. As NCDs have become a major health burden in the country, the Government has put in place ambitious targets to reduce the prevalence of the main health risk factors associated with the onset of NCDs among the population. The strategy focuses on increasing prevention and control of the main risk factors: tobacco use and alcohol abuse, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet, which contribute to about 80 percent of NCDs.
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    Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia: Evaluation of MDGs Specific Purpose Grant to Regions
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-03-29) World Bank
    Ethiopia is a highly decentralized country. Presently, sub-national government taxes and revenues account for about 28 percent of general taxes and revenues, and sub-national expenditures amount to 51 percent of general government expenditures. The ensuing vertical mismatch is bridged by grants from the Federal government to the regions. Presently, these grants account for 57 percent of sub-national expenditures1. For many years, these grants consisted mostly of a block grant (the Federal General Purpose Grant) given without any strings attached, which means the regions could use it as they wished. The rest of the report is organized as follows. Section two provides the policy context that is the information, data, evolutions, etc. specific to Ethiopia, which are necessary to understand and interpret the MDGs grant policy. Section three present and discusses the policy content that is the components of the policy previously identified. Section four is a policy assessment, which utilizes the evaluation framework proposed above to analyze the relationships between the various components of the policy, and discuss its efficiency, its effectiveness and its success. Section five is a conclusion that summarizes the analysis, and attempts, prudently and modestly, to outline some potential avenues for future action.
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    Decentralization, Accountability and Local Services in Sierra Leone : Situation Analysis, Key Challenges and Opportunities for Reform
    (Washington, DC, 2014-04-02) World Bank
    Following years of civil war that ended in 2002, Sierra Leone has pursued a policy of decentralization, devolving responsibility for many government functions to the Local Council level. The aims of this policy include achieving a more equitable and inclusive access to public services across the national territory, in part to alleviate regional inequities that contributed to the civil war. The implementation of the decentralization policy has faced many obstacles, however, including the need to rebuild local government institutions and capacity after 30 years of centrally dominated governance; the limited devolution of financial resources; and multifaceted political economy hurdles. This report, first, analyzes the current state of decentralization in Sierra Leone; second, identifies the most prominent challenges to continued decentralization; and, third, discusses options for the way forward. The report draws on qualitative and quantitative data collected from both central and local government stakeholders, and takes the perspective that decentralization and strengthened local governance institutions are an effective means to localize development and improve the effective and equitable delivery of key public services. The study focuses on progress to date and standing challenges in four key areas of analysis: fiscal decentralization, human resource decentralization, ensuring inclusivity and accountability in local governance, and ensuring efficiency and responsiveness in service delivery.
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    Fiscal Policies and Institutions for Shared Growth in Kenya : Lessons from the Global Crisis
    (Washington, DC, 2010-04) World Bank
    This report brings together three budget notes that assess Kenya's fiscal capacity to respond to global crisis and deliver shared growth without compromising macroeconomic stability. The report is organized into three notes. The key messages from this analysis point to areas where Kenya's fiscal policy requires strengthening. The first note is an assessment of Kenya's fiscal stance and suggests an appropriate fiscal anchor for Kenya. The second note reviews the status of public investment in Kenya and suggests the reforms required to improve public investment planning and implementation. The subject of the third note is pro-poor spending and targeted subsidy programs. This study concludes that the targeted cash transfers, unemployment benefits, and workfare programs provide automatic stabilizers for fiscal policy during crisis.
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    The Gambia - Improving Civil Service Performance : Public Service Pensions Policy Reform Note
    (World Bank, 2010-02-03) World Bank
    There is a general consensus that The Gambia's civil service has a number of key capacity weaknesses. Pay is too low to hire, motivate and retain key technical and professional staffs. Staffs are not managed to achieve results, neither rewarded for good performance nor sanctioned for poor performance or breaking the rules. Frequent removals and transfers of Government officials have undermined job security and institutional knowledge. The main objective of this report is to outline the results of the analysis of civil service capacity constraints. Based on the analysis, the report presents options to consider for the proposed civil service reform program which the Government plans on preparing. The Personnel Management Office (PMO) drafted a reform strategy in August 2007, the 'public sector reform sector strategy paper 2007-2011,' which can be further developed by incorporating the findings of report. The expected goal of this strategy is to build the capacity of the civil service to formulate policies and allocate resources to implement those policies so as to ensure effective delivery of public services. This report is organized as follows: chapter one identifies the overall capacity constraints in the civil service; chapter two analyzes civil service pay and benefits; chapter three assesses human resource management; chapter four focuses on the education and health sectors; and chapter five summarizes the major findings and proposes reform options and the next steps.