Other Public Sector Study

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    Gabon: Assessment of the Impact of Tobacco Excise Tax Increases on Price, Consumption and Tax Revenue over 2018-2021
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-04-25) World Bank Group
    This report presents the results of the assessment that simulates the fiscal revenue and consumption impact of proposed tobacco tax increases in Gabon in the period 2018–2021.
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    Stimulating Business Angels in the Czech Republic
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-10) World Bank Group
    This report provides a systematic assessment of business angel activities, and the ecosystem surrounding innovation finance, in the Czech Republic. Based on literature reviews, published data sources and local stakeholder interviews, the report distills findings related to the demand for and supply of risk investments, and offers policy recommendations for stimulating business angels. The report characterizes the Angel ecosystem as emerging with potential for growth. It is small both in terms of the number of investors and the amount invested. There appears to be a general lack of syndication of investments and concentration of investments in the capital (Prague) and in the information, communication, and technology (ICT) sector. On the demand side, a credible deal flow does exist, although it falls short of constituting a critical mass needed to support the development of the market. While issues in the local environment may affect the flow of angel investments, these are not insurmountable, based on the country’s competitive ranking on relevant global and European indicators. Finally, the report proposes a number of policy recommendations for enhancing business angel awareness and investments, including data collection and mapping of early stage market activities (short-term), creation of Czech National Angel Association (medium-term), and implementation of incentivization measures such as co-investment funds and tax incentives (long-term).
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    Reducing Tobacco Use Through Taxation in the Russian Federation: A Modelled Assessment of Two Policy Options
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-10-01) World Bank Group
    This report presents results of the modelling exercise in terms of excise tax increases for the period 2018–2021, including average excise tax and revenue mobilization options; it also compares the tobacco excise tax already included in the country's current tax code with that necessary to achieve proposed EU minimum rates by 2021 (Minimum EU excise tax rates scenario).
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    Improving Public Sector Performance: Through Innovation and Inter-Agency Coordination
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-10) World Bank Group
    This report is an inaugural issue in a new series that aims to offer a fresh look at how developing countries are overcoming persistent problems in public sector management. Significant improvements in public sector performance are being evidenced across the developing world today, as government officials and political leaders find new and innovative ways to tackle long-standing challenges. Part I of this report demonstrates that public sector performance is being pursued diligently and successfully across a variety of country contexts, including in low-income environments. Through surveying its governance specialists from around the globe, the World Bank has assembled a collection of 15 cases that showcase how lessons from global experience are being adapted and applied in practice. The report also explores common success drivers that appear in each of the cases. Part II focuses on a special, cross-cutting topic that is critical to public sector performance -- policy and inter-agency coordination. As the responsibilities of government have grown in volume and complexity, policy and program coordination has become ever more challenging, and the stakes have never been higher. Enhancing coordination will depend not only on the adopted formal institutional mechanisms, but also on their interplay with the broader institutional environment and with other processes that influence coordination.
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    Advancing Action on the Implementation of Tobacco Tax Harmonization in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States Countries
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-06) World Bank Group
    This study analyses the tax systems of five OECS countries (Antigua and Barbuda, Grenada, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines). Taxes on tobacco, and therefore cigarette prices, vary widely across the five countries, and smuggling and tax evasion are genuine risks. The study assesses two possible harmonization scenarios, to estimate the possible impact of tobacco tax policy measures on tobacco use, and at the same time to expand the fiscal capacity of OECS governments through the mobilization of domestic resources. The simulations are modelled using the harmonization policies adopted at the OECS treaty of Basseterre. Comparisons are also made with other customs unions to identify regional best practices.
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    Ethiopia: Modelling the Impact of Tobacco Tax Policy Reforms on Tobacco Use and Domestic Resources Mobilization Under Different Scenarios
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-01-23) World Bank Group
    As part of the ongoing tax policy dialogue with the Government of Ethiopia, the World BankGroup organized a workshop in Addis Ababa, on June 20, 2016, to discuss tobacco use, its healthimpact, and excise taxes on tobacco as a public policy measure to reduce tobacco use, and hencethe risk of ill health, premature mortality, and disability due to tobacco-related diseases, andmobilize additional domestic resources to expand the fiscal capacity of the government, inaccordance with the Financing for Development Addis Ababa Action Agenda. This event wasattended by officials from the Ministry of Health (MOH) and Ministry of Finance & EconomicCooperation (MoFEC). Ethiopia's Health Sector Transformation Plan 2015-2020 lists noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) as one of the major public health challenges facing the country. As in the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, NCDs are expected to become the leading cause of ill health and death by 2030, influenced by rapid urbanization, rapid per capita economic growth, increase in behavioral risk factors (most NCDs are the result of tobacco use, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, and/or the harmful use of alcohol), and improvements in the control of infectious diseases that increase life expectancy. As NCDs have become a major health burden in the country, the Government has put in place ambitious targets to reduce the prevalence of the main health risk factors associated with the onset of NCDs among the population. The strategy focuses on increasing prevention and control of the main risk factors: tobacco use and alcohol abuse, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet, which contribute to about 80 percent of NCDs.
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    Assessment of Tax Compliance Costs for Businesses in the Kyrgyz Republic
    (World Bank, Bishkek, 2017-12) World Bank Group
    The International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group, is the largest global development institute focused on supporting the private sector in emerging economies. Through its work with more than 2,000 companies worldwide, IFC mobilizes capital, expertise, and influence to create markets and opportunities for developing countries. The objective of the IFC Central Asia Tax Project is to improve compliance with mandatory requirements of tax legislation through increased transparency and simplification of tax administration procedures. Simplification of tax accounting procedures will reduce costs of tax compliance, lessen the administrative burden on small and medium businesses, reduce barriers to entry into the formal economy, and serve as a driver for economic growth in the Kyrgyz Republic. The key element of reforms is an immediate assessment of their efficiency and possibility for adjustments based on assessment results. With this view, IFC, through its technical assistance tax reforms projects, has conducted a series of studies, which help monitor the tax system reforming processes in the Kyrgyz Republic. The main goal of the studies was a periodic assessment of time and costs to taxpayers in the Kyrgyz Republic in complying with the mandatory requirements of the tax legislation. Equitable intervals of measurements allowed an immediate assessment of the impact of implemented tax reforms on the cost of taxpayers to comply with tax legislation. In addition, actual data on the tax system status helped elaborate concise recommendations for the Government with the focus on elimination of identified issues and reduction of the tax administration costs to businesses. This report outlines the results of all three rounds of business environment surveys in the area of tax regulation; it includes the estimates of tax accounting costs of taxpayers in the Kyrgyz Republic in 2012, 2014, and 2016.
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    Peru: Building a More Efficient and Equitable Fiscal Decentralization System
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-05-02) World Bank Group
    Over the past two decades, Peru has achieved remarkable economic success. Average annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth has exceeded 5 percent since 2001. Poverty has been consistently reduced, and sustained improvements have been observed in social and human development. The poverty incidence rate fell from 58 to 23 percent between 2004 and 2014, and households’ incomes at the bottom 40 percent grew 50 percent faster than the national average. The structural transformation of Peru’s economy striking fast and widely shared growth transformed Peru into an upper-middle income and diversified economy. This report analyzes recent trends of the fiscal decentralization process in Peru and presents a set of reform options designed to harvest the envisaged efficiency and equity gains in service delivery that the fiscal decentralization was expected to bring. The analysis and policy options are presented in a conceptually logical order: (i) departing from institutional arrangements in the vertical structure of subnational governments passing to (ii) the need of a clearer definition of spending responsibilities among levels of government that needs to be followed by (iii) a commensurate redefinition of revenue assignments and (iv) enhancing equalization role of the transfer system.
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    Russia: Subnational Governments' Fiscal Response to the Economic Downturn
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-12-15) World Bank Group
    The aim of this note is to present and analyze subnational fiscal trends in Russia in the context of overall slowing economic growth and falling oil prices over the last few years. In particular, in 2015, GDP fell by 3.7 percent. Despite efforts to cut expenditures, the federal deficit increased to 2.4 percent of GDP. Subnational governments were also affected by the economic slowdown. Aggregate subnational revenues declined, in real terms, by 6 percent between 2014 and 2015. Revenues from taxes (including shares of federal taxes) fell by 4 percent while federal transfers fell by 13 percent. Nevertheless, the aggregate fiscal performance of subnational governments actually improved over this period. The nadir of subnational government finances occurred in 2013, when the consolidated subnational deficit reached 0.9 percent of GDP. Since then, it has shrunk. In 2015, the deficit was equal to only 0.2 percent of GDP. This was largely achieved by drastic cuts in spending. Spending in the social and infrastructure sectors both fell by 9 percent in real terms between 2014 and 2015. This note examines the fiscal prospects of subnational governments in Russia, focusing particularly on the nature of these spending cuts and whether they are sustainable over the medium term.
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    Integrated Thinking and Reporting: Focusing on Value Creation in the Public Sector
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-06-28) World Bank Group
    This introductory guide has been developed by the International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC), the Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy (CIPFA) with the support of the World Bank to explain to public sector leaders and their teams how integrated thinking and reporting can help the sector consider how make the most of resources, encourage the right behaviors and demonstrate to stakeholders how they are achieving the strategy and creating value over the short and longer term.