Other Public Sector Study

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    Toward More People-Centered Service Delivery: Opportunities for the National ID System in Lesotho
    (Washington, DC, 2022-05) World Bank
    This note documents the current and emerging use cases for the national ID (NID) system in the Kingdom of Lesotho. It demonstrates considerable potential and progress to date, and makes recommendations for moving toward a more inclusive, trusted and service delivery-oriented NID system. Global experience has shown that national ID systems can promote more efficient, transparent and people-centered service delivery in the public and private sectors, particularly when the system is designed with the appropriate enablers and safeguards in place to support improved development outcomes and mitigate risks. As countries move toward digital economies and governance, ID systems often serve as an essential digital platform, underpinning the digital payment infrastructure and transactions, as well as the provision of online and offline government services.
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    ID4D Country Diagnostic: Central African Republic
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-10-19) World Bank
    This diagnostic has been conducted with the sole purpose of serving the ongoing development of social protection policy in the country. It is the Bank’s hope that the report will be useful for social protection policy development as intended. The Bank has not agreed with the government to invest in the civil registration and identification sector. The government may consider the use of this report for the activities it will undertake to seek support from the international donor community for such an investment. The report is organized into the following sections: section one gives introduction. Section two examines the identity ecosystem in Central African Republic (CAR) and presents the stakeholders on the supply and demand sides, the identity schemes, the legal framework, and the specific post-crisis identity context; and section three presents the analysis conducted by the World Bank Group and details the main recommendations to build on so social protection actors can promote an efficient and reliable identity ecosystem that can serve the entire Central African population, starting from the most vulnerable.
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    People's Perspectives on ID and Civil Registration in Rwanda
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-01-29) World Bank
    Rwanda's electronic national population register (NPR) and ID project was first launched in 2008 and has since achieved impressive coverage. Today, the NPR captures the information of approximately 98 percent of the population. It is commonly considered to be one of the strongest foundational national identification (ID) systems in Africa due to the robust back end and information management systems that underpin it. The National Identification Agency (NIDA) ), has made concerted efforts over the years in the areas of policy, business process, communications, and support to ensure that all people in Rwanda are able to access IDs and register births and receive birth certificates. This has included initiatives like "CRVS week" in 2017 to encourage people to register the births of their children. It also includes nationwide communications campaigns to ensure equal access to IDs and the ability to use these to access services, with specific targeting for vulnerable groups like refugees. In order to improve current processes, close the remaining two percent gap in ID coverage, and inform the roll out of the new digital birth registration, NIDA requested the World Bank to support qualitative research to understand experiences, attitudes, and behavior of Rwandans towards accessing and using the current national ID cards and birth certificates.
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    Unraveling Data’s Gordian Knot: Enablers and Safeguards for Trusted Data Sharing in the New Economy
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021) World Bank
    As countries around the world battle the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, the importance of sharing and using data effectively has never been more apparent. Data collection and analysis tools for diagnostics, detection, and prediction are of critical importance to respond intelligently to this crisis and prevent more lives from being lost. An effective response requires data to be shared between institutions, across sectors, and beyond national borders. Because data is critical to understanding, anticipating, and responding to the crisis, new approaches to share data are being tried, some which may have concerning consequences for individual data protection. It is an extraordinary moment where the use of personal data for helping society may potentially come into conflict with data protection norms. The aim of this report is to highlight emerging practices and interesting features of countries’ current approaches to establishing these safeguards and enablers of data sharing.
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    Creating Disability-Inclusive ID System
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-11-17) World Bank
    Access to identification is a vital priority. In developing countries, persons with disabilities are among those most likely to face barriers in accessing government services such as health and rehabilitation, public transportation, education, voting, financial services, and economic opportunities. For women and girls with disabilities and other persons with disabilities with intersecting identities, these barriers are multidimensional. Addressing poverty among persons with disabilities and their families requires solutions that address their differentiated and sometimes complex needs, a precondition of which is possessing official proof of identity. This report provides a model of the continuous nature of the ID lifecycle, suggesting some illustrative approaches to designing a disability-inclusive ID process at any stage in the lifecycle. The ID lifecycle comprises five phases, each allowing for disability-inclusive interventions. The five phases are: (1) planning and design; (2) outreach and engagement; (3) enrollment; (4) use of ID; (5) and monitoring and evaluation. The cycle presents examples of continuous activities which should be regularly revisited to ensure that ID systems are accessible to people with disabilities regardless of the stage of implementation of the ID system. While not exhaustive, and recognizing that country contexts differ, this cyclical model can be a useful planning tool, much like that used across the world by electoral commissions for inclusive voter registration.
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    Data Governance Practices in MENA: Case Study - Opportunities and Challenges in Morocco
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-11) World Bank
    Through successive royal speeches and digital transformation strategies, Morocco has identified the digital transformation of government, the economy, and society as high priorities for the country’s new development model and for strengthening the social contract between the state and citizens. This case study examines the data governance ecosystem in Morocco by applying a regional assessment tool developed the World Bank’s Middle East and North Africa (MENA) tech initiative. The case provides an assessment of existing practices to optimize the management and generation of data for development outcomes. Morocco has the opportunity to achieve its strategic digital transformation aspirations by reinforcing and effectively implementing a robust technical infrastructure and policy, legal, and regulatory framework for data governance to enable trusted data collection, processing, and (re)use by government, civil society, and the private sector. Enabling effective implementation of this data governance framework and better use by civil servants and individual users will also require investment to build institutional capacity and digital skills of all actors in the data ecosystem. Finally, an inclusive communications and dissemination campaign to increase public awareness and acceptance, can foster trust in data use in a country and region with a fragile social contract.
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    Freedom of Information Access: Key Challenges, Lessons Learned and Strategies for Effective Implementation
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-06-01) World Bank
    Implementation of the right to information as established in a Freedom of Information Access (FOIA) Law provides a foundation for institutionalization of transparency and support for anti-corruption efforts. Passage of a FOIA law is only a first step toward accessibility of data and documents held by public agencies, however. Effective implementation of a FOIA requires that public agencies take additional steps to put laws into practice and overcome common implementation challenges that can render FOIA laws ineffective. This note, which builds on previous World Bank research on factors determining effective implementation of FOIA laws, reviews cases of introduction of FOIA laws around the world and summarizes the main challenges, lessons learned and key strategies emerging from these experiences. Its primary aim is to inform Italian public agencies charged with implementation of the FOIA law about steps they can take toward effective implementation. As such, it focuses on areas of activity typically within the purview of public agencies, as opposed to those typically in scope of policymakers or central agencies charged with implementation and/or legislative oversight of FOIA.
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    Artificial Intelligence in the Public Sector: Maximizing Opportunities, Managing Risks
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020) World Bank
    The paper curate’s knowledge residing in public documents and aims to distill lessons learned on how to adopt and use AI as part of a public sector modernization strategy. The paper’s primary scope is on governance-related aspects. Chapter two elaborates on the opportunities being availed by governmentsaround the world using AI. These opportunities should be availed while managing associated risks, which are discussed in chapter three. For maximizing opportunities and managing risks, governments need to adopt AI ethical principles and institutional arrangements, discussed in chapter four. Chapter five discusses the ethical dimensions that need a broader policy response at the national level. Chapter six enumerates the building blocks necessary for a successful long-term AI strategy. The appendices contain information for practitioners. Appendix A provides technical information and additional resources for further support, and Appendix B highlights solutions that rely on AI for improvements in efficiency, scientific analysis, and prediction within the disciplines. To fully comprehend the impact that AI might have on governments, it is necessary to develop a solid understanding of key AI concepts. The paper does not offer in-depth coverage of work in specific sectors. The findings in the paper were validated through interviews with industry experts. Special efforts have been made to ensure the architectural design approaches discussed in the paper incorporate the best industry knowledge. The paper goes to great lengths to maintain a practical approach, with ‘handson’ examples of architectures and applications.
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    South Africa ID Case Study
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-05-01) World Bank
    South Africa’s approach to identification offers valuable lessons for countries looking to increase the coverage, robustness, and use of their ID systems. Since the end of apartheid, South Africa’s national identification system has been transformed from a tool of oppression to one for inclusion and the delivery of social services. The ID system is now closely integrated with civil registration, boasts high coverage among all segments of the population, and has been instrumental for effective service delivery and a cost effective electoral process.
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    Digital Government and Open Data Readiness Assessment
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-02) World Bank ; Government of Vietnam
    This report, composed of two separate themes of Digital Government Readiness Assessment (DGRA) and Open Data Readiness Assessment (ODRA), is intended to help government assess their digital environments and frame their own strategies.In order to assess the potential for a Digital Enabling Government Initiative (DEGI) for Vietnam, this report compiles two chapters of aforementioned DGRA and ODRA. Specifically, it assesses potential opportunities and challenges of improving digital government and open data initiatives in the country. Although DGRA and ODRA are two separate assessments with different dimensions evaluated, they take a similar methodological approach from a broader point of view, starting with the desk research and later expanding to scoping mission. Therefore, both chapters of DGRA and ODRA are similar in format but outlined in respective assessment dimension and individual indicators. Since its onset in the fall of 2017, intensive desk research was conducted, and a field mission was carried out to confirm preliminary findings and uncover additional insight during a specific period in time, which means that during the course of analysis and writing additional developments could have been made. This is similar to the United Nations global e-government development report, which assesses progress during a “snapshot” in time.DGRA, the first part of the report, aims to evaluate Vietnam’s current potential for digital government development across seven key dimensions of leadership and governance; user focus; business process change; capabilities; culture and skills; shared infrastructure; data driven; and cybersecurity, privacy and resilience. Meanwhile, ODRA assesses Vietnam’s open data policy through evaluating eight different dimensions of leadership; policy/legal framework; institutional structure; data within government; demand; citizen engagement; funding; and infrastructure.The DGRA chapter focuses on digital government, which is a core part of Digital Economy as public sector delivers information and services more effectively and make them accessible to its citizens.The DGRA also measures the citizen’s demand for digital government services as well as integration and infrastructure policies to delve deeper into the opportunities and challenges the country faces in its digital development journey. The assessment includes a step-by-step analysis of specific components of digital government and presents an action plan to address the challenges identified for improvement.ODRA, the second part of the report, focuses on the country’s open data policy. Open data refers that the data must be both legally and technically open to public, thus placed in the public domain or under liberal terms of use with minimal restrictions, and that the data is published in machine-readable and preferably in non-proprietary electronic formats, which enables everyone to access and use data with freely available software tools.This report, bringing DGRA and ODRA assessments altogether, aims to help raise awareness of digital government and open data, two critical topics as Vietnam prepares its next step for the fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0). Further, it hopes to serve as a useful resource for the top government leadership in identifying areas of relative strengths and weaknesses to help improve digital government and open data at the same time.