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Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-10-18) Lebbos, Toni Joe ; Esquivel-Korsiak, Victoria ; Clark, JuliaThe Principles on Identification for Sustainable Development, endorsed by 30 organizations, provides a framework for how to design identification (ID) systems that fulfill the promise of inclusive, sustainable development. The first principle on inclusion seeks to ensure universal access to identification, free from discrimination. To realize this ideal in practice, ID systems need to be fully inclusive of and accessible to all individuals regardless of their sexual orientation or gender identity (SOGI). This note describes key issues and emergent good practices to help practitioners build inclusive ID systems that prevent or reduce discrimination against individuals based on SOGI.
Barriers to the Inclusion of Women and Marginalized Groups in Nigeria’s ID System: Findings and Solutions from an In-Depth Qualitative Study(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021) Hanmer, Lucia ; Esquivel-Korsiak, Victoria ; Pande, RohiniAn estimated one billion people around the world do not have an officially recognized means of identification (ID). The majority live in low-income countries (LICs), particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. This study contributes to an overarching goal of building global knowledge about increasing women’s and marginalized groups’ access to and use of IDs to promote development. There is little systematic evidence about the causes of gender gaps or the exclusion of particular groups from possession of government-recognized IDs. The study aims to analyze gaps in access to the national ID issued by Nigeria’s National Identity Management Commission (NIMC), and provide evidence-based advice to policy makers on how to lift the constraints that create high barriers for women and marginalized groups.