Other Public Sector Study
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Railway Reform: Toolkit for Improving Rail Sector Performance(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-09) World BankThis Railway Reform Toolkit aims to provide an easy-to-use resource on the rail industry and to provide an experience-based set of best practices to aid in the planning and execution of railway reforms. It s based on international experiences with railway reform under a range of railway organizational forms, state agencies, state-owned, or private enterprises. The toolkit should be particularly useful to those thinking about transitions from one organizational form to another and for those seeking to improve railway performance through investment, reorganization, or changes in government policy.
The Political Economy of the 2016 Tobacco and Proposed Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax Increases in Colombia(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-09) Garcia, Maria Isabel ; Villar Uribe, Manuela ; Iunes, RobertoIn 2008, Colombia joined the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which includes measures related to price and taxes designed to reduce supply and demand. By 2015, the overall prevalence of smokers in the country had decreased slightly but still reached 17 percent. The impact of tobacco on the mortality and quality of life of Colombians was estimated as a direct loss of more than 600,000 years of life and more than 26,000 deaths each year. The price of cigarettes in Colombia in 2015 was so low (approximately 2 US dollars per pack of 20 cigarettes), that it was higher than just one other country in Latin America and in the Caribbean. At the time, Colombia was contending with shrinking oil revenue (owing to a sharp drop in oil prices) and constantly rising public expenditure. In the health sector cost pressures stemmed, among other factors, from a change in the government's responsibility for health coverage in the subsidized system that covers the cost of health services for the country's lowest population segments. It was in this context that the government in early 2015 created a committee of experts responsible for proposing changes in the country's tax structure. This document describes the course of events that led to the phased adjustment of the tobacco tax approved by Congress in December 2016, with a view to aligning the price of cigarettes in Colombia with the Latin American average. Despite the failed attempt to introduce a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages, the discussion was framed and will most likely be renewed in the future.
Analysis of Disaster Risk Management in Colombia : A Contribution to the Creation of Public Policies(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2011) Campos Garcia, Ana ; Holm-Nielsen, Niels ; Diaz G., Carolina ; Rubiano Vargas, Diana Marcela ; Costa P., Carlos R. ; Ramirez Cortes, Fernando ; Dickson, EricThe objective of this analysis is to assess the state of progress of risk management in Colombia and propose recommendations to help the Government set public policy in the short-and long-term. For this reason, the study sought to: (i) establish the risk and impact of disasters in recent decades, (ii) identify legal, institutional and conceptual themes in the country, (iii) review the state and evolution of investment in risk management, (iv) analyze the role of local authorities and industry in the risk management, and (v) identify gaps and challenges in the definition of the responsibilities of public and private sectors. This report, a product of joint work with multiple public and private agencies, is not limited in analyzing the causes of risk and measuring their growth. By contrast, it elaborates on the institutional developments in the risk management at different levels of government and how the topic is incorporated in the territory of public administration and industry. It further states the great opportunities for joint risk management instruments of disaster planning, investment, existing monitoring and control, and shows the need to define public and private responsibility as part of a reduction strategy of the state's fiscal vulnerability. In conclusion, the study shows that if the country does not want to see economic growth accompanied by more frequent and larger losses it will be essential to have a radical change in development policies and land management practices and industry. Therefore, the present document defines a set of recommendations to improve management of disaster risk at the level of state policy, showing that the priority to reduce the impact of disasters is based on the task of improving conditions of use and occupation of territory.
Base Line Study : Transparency in the Public Construction Sector in Guatemala(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2010-11) Multi-Stakeholder GroupThis study examined the level of transparency in the public construction sector in Guatemala to create a benchmark for the implementation of the CoST (Construction Sector Transparency) Initiative in the country. It was based on an analysis of the disclosure of 31 indicators of Material Project Information (MPI), as defined by the CoST Initiative. The study showed that disclosure of Material Project Information in Guatemala is supported significantly by the national legal framework. The law mandates online disclosure of almost 87 percent of the MPI required by the CoST Initiative. This is the highest percentage among countries participating in the CoST Initiative to-date. Yet, an analysis of 16 projects selected randomly in seven Procurement Entities (PEs) - four at the central level and three at the local level - revealed that actual information disclosure only amounts, on average, to 38 percent of the MPI required by law. This represents 34 percent of the MPI required by the CoST Initiative. Procurement Entities (PEs) at the central government level disclose on average 40 percent of the MPI required by the law online in the GUATECOMPRAS (Contracting System of the State of Guatemala) system; PEs at the local level disclose 35 percent. In the project cycle, the stages registering the lowest levels of information disclosure were: design (6.29 percent of the MPI required by the law), execution (5.50 percent), supervision (4.13 percent) and post-contract (19.25 percent). Road infrastructure projects under analysis underwent, on average, 17 variation orders, with additional times and price amounting to 123 percent and 103 percent, respectively. Based on the results of the study, the Guatemalan CoST Initiative will collaborate in its pilot phase with selected PEs to facilitate the analysis and disclosure of MPI throughout the project cycle.