Other Public Sector Study

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    Reducing Tobacco Use Through Taxation in the Russian Federation: A Modelled Assessment of Two Policy Options
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-10-01) World Bank Group
    This report presents results of the modelling exercise in terms of excise tax increases for the period 2018–2021, including average excise tax and revenue mobilization options; it also compares the tobacco excise tax already included in the country's current tax code with that necessary to achieve proposed EU minimum rates by 2021 (Minimum EU excise tax rates scenario).
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    Re-Mapping Opportunity: Making Best Use of the Economic Potential of Russia's Regions
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-03-01) World Bank
    In order to understand a country as large and diverse as Russia, it is extremely important to consider spatial patterns of economic development. As Russia looks for new drivers of economic growth, it is important to understand the structural conditions that have defined economic development in Russia’s regions. This report uses the Economic Potential Index (EPI) methodology to identify the conditions that drive regional development. Economic potential is the level of productivity that is possible for a region to achieve given its structural endowments, which are characteristics that are hard to alter in the short run. The methodology used in this report combines quantitative analysis of drivers of productivity across regions with in-depth case studies that focus on the role of regional governments and institutions in converting endowments into economic outcomes. This methodology generates insights that are relevant for both national and regional governments. The first chapter of this report provides an overview of regional development in Russia over the last 25 years and identifies “Russia-specific” national structural conditions that may affect regional development. The second chapter discusses the results of an assessment of economic potential at the regional level and the factors that shape it in Russia. The third chapter focuses on the role of national and regional governance, policy, and institutions in promoting economic development of the regions. The final chapter proposes policy priorities for both regional and national authorities.
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    Promoting Development in Shared River Basins: Case Studies from International Experience
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-03) Altingoz, Mehmet ; Belinskij, Antti ; Bréthaut, Christian ; do Ó, Afonso ; Gevinian, Suren ; Hearns, Glen ; Keskinen, Marko ; McCracken, Melissa ; Ni, Vadim ; Solninen, Niko ; Wolf, Aaron T.
    Transboundary freshwater systems create inevitable linkages and interdependencies between countries. The use of shared water resources by one country will, in most cases, impact other countries sharing the same system. At the same time, coordination among countries in the development of transboundary basins can yield greater benefits than would be available to individual countries pursuing individual development. UN Sustainable Development Goal 6 Target 5 recognizes this potential, calling on the world community to implement integrated water resources management at all levels, ‘including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate’. With a growing number of basins in which water use and demand permanently or temporarily exceeds the amount of renewable water available, and uncertainty from climate change, SDG Target 6.5 becomes increasingly relevant to development interventions designed to secure availability of supplies and create resilience. This is a companion document to the study "Promoting Development in Shared River Basins: Tools for Enhancing Transboundary Basin Management," which aims to contribute to relevant knowledge for achieving SDG Target 6.5. It presents six case studies from international experience on coordinated management in transboundary basins: Kura-Araks Basin; Columbia Basin; Chu and Talas Basins; Vuoksi Basin; Douro Basin; and Rhône Basin. The case studies demonstrate real-world application of selecting appropriate tools for individual transboundary situations along a three-stage process of coordinated basin development, which is detailed in the main study.
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    Russia: Subnational Governments' Fiscal Response to the Economic Downturn
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-12-15) World Bank Group
    The aim of this note is to present and analyze subnational fiscal trends in Russia in the context of overall slowing economic growth and falling oil prices over the last few years. In particular, in 2015, GDP fell by 3.7 percent. Despite efforts to cut expenditures, the federal deficit increased to 2.4 percent of GDP. Subnational governments were also affected by the economic slowdown. Aggregate subnational revenues declined, in real terms, by 6 percent between 2014 and 2015. Revenues from taxes (including shares of federal taxes) fell by 4 percent while federal transfers fell by 13 percent. Nevertheless, the aggregate fiscal performance of subnational governments actually improved over this period. The nadir of subnational government finances occurred in 2013, when the consolidated subnational deficit reached 0.9 percent of GDP. Since then, it has shrunk. In 2015, the deficit was equal to only 0.2 percent of GDP. This was largely achieved by drastic cuts in spending. Spending in the social and infrastructure sectors both fell by 9 percent in real terms between 2014 and 2015. This note examines the fiscal prospects of subnational governments in Russia, focusing particularly on the nature of these spending cuts and whether they are sustainable over the medium term.
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    Integrated Thinking and Reporting: Focusing on Value Creation in the Public Sector
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-06-28) World Bank Group
    This introductory guide has been developed by the International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC), the Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy (CIPFA) with the support of the World Bank to explain to public sector leaders and their teams how integrated thinking and reporting can help the sector consider how make the most of resources, encourage the right behaviors and demonstrate to stakeholders how they are achieving the strategy and creating value over the short and longer term.
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    Opportunities and Strategies for Mainstreaming Open Data in Transport Projects in St. Petersburg
    (Washington, DC, 2014-12) World Bank
    The World Bank conducted this study of the potential for Open Transport Data in St. Petersburg as part of the preparations for the Improvement of Urban Transport Systems Project in Russia. It is principally intended for use by the St. Petersburg transportation authorities, the Federal Ministry of Transport and the Project Implementation Unit in considering and implementing open data as part of the new systems being developed as part of the Project. There are already good examples of transport information systems in St. Petersburg. Most of this information is not currently available for external use, but in the cases where it has been made available, for instance by the Agency 'Organizer of Transportation' for real-time bus information; this has been welcomed and well-used by citizens and authorities, despite some current limitations. Within the St. Petersburg component of Improvement of Urban Transport Systems Project there are plans for more transport information systems, including parking information, traffic management and passenger information systems. The conclusion of this report is that the social, economic and environmental benefits of the St. Petersburg project would be enhanced by the greater availability and use by travelers and others of the information collected by these planned systems. Making the information available as Open Transport Data and allowing it to be used for development of innovative third-party applications would be a relatively easy and cost-effective way of leveraging the planned investment to ensure that the information reached the largest number of travelers. Doing so will maximize the desired behavioral changes that drive the benefits and improve the overall return on investment.
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    Open Data for Economic Growth in Russia
    (Washington, DC, 2014-07) World Bank
    The report reviews the latest data about companies using open data, and highlights four companies which did not exist ten years ago, which are driven by open data, and which are each now valued at around $1 billion or more. It discusses the five archetypical types of businesses using Open Data, and cites concrete examples of each, and discusses the types of data which are proving most likely to lead to widespread business adoption and innovation. One of the examples of successful open data companies is Zillow with a market capitalization of over $3 billion, provides a home and real estate on-line marketplace. Climate Corp, acquired for $930 million by Monsanto in October 2013, uses 60 years of detailed crop yield data, weather observations from one million locations in the United States and 14 terabytes of soil quality data - all free from the US Government, to provide applications that help farmers improve their profits by making better informed operating and financing decisions. The paper suggests that since Open Data is relatively new in Russia it is unsurprising that there is less evidence of actual economic returns so far. Nevertheless rapid progress has been made, with the successful publication of over 500 datasets as promised by July 2013. Subsequently the first version of the Russian Open Data portal data.gov.ru has been launched, and already contains close to 1300 datasets. In addition to the release of data from Ministries of the Russian Federation there have been creditable Open Data initiatives in several regions, with 8 regional open data portals, and in major cities such as Moscow and St Petersburg. There is no fundamental reason why Russia should not be able to exploit the economic advantages of open data for itself, and indeed why Russia should not be a global leader in the exploitation of Open Data elsewhere in the region and globally. In addition to the available data and well-advanced digitization of the government, Russia has active venture capital sector with both state and private sources of capital, high-speed broadband and mobile internet infrastructure and necessary technical skills. The report makes some recommendations for policies and actions which the Government of the Russian Federation could take to maximize the economic growth possible from their data, and suggests that the Government should see itself not only as a Supplier of open data but also as a leader, catalyst and user of it.
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    Nuturing Innovation : Venture Acceleration Networks, A Review of Existing Models
    (Washington, DC, 2011-08) World Bank
    This report evaluates the role, operational models and identifies good practices of programs that seek to accelerate innovative entrepreneurship by managing, nurturing and leveraging social and business networks. The report discusses the role of venture acceleration networks, using networks to support entrepreneurs, creating strong networks, selecting ventures, financing the program, choosing an organizational structure, adapting to the innovation ecosystem and the role for the public sector in Russia. The second part of the report describes individual programs. The conclusion suggests next steps for operationalizing a venture acceleration network in Russia. Venture acceleration network experiments highlight a multitude of challenges. Some face challenges linked to the environments where they operate. Where there is no local pipeline of coachable ventures or of mentors with the right mix of skills, experience and connections, programs do not succeed. Programs also face an uphill challenge where there is no local access to complementary forms of public and private support.
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    Who Governs Rural Russia?: Preliminary Outcomes of the 2006 Decentralization Reform
    (World Bank, Moscow, 2011-03) World Bank
    The objectives of the study are to: a) increase understanding of the effects and effectiveness of the implementation of the local government reform launched in 2006; and b) assess the impact of a World Bank-supported intervention that aimed to enhance effectiveness of the reforms by increasing local capacity and local participation. In line with these objectives, the study assessed the perceived effects and effectiveness of the implementation of the local government reform in selected provinces. The study also constitutes a baseline to allow for on-going assessment of progress and to inform corrective policy actions. The instruments and methods created during the study may be used in future assessments of the dynamics of local governance reform. These effects are reviewed in section two. The study also carried out a rigorous evaluation of the impact of an operational intervention carried out with World Bank support in the three regions of the study. This grant-funded project was aimed at increasing the effectiveness of participation of rural citizens in public life and increasing the capacity of local administrations to operate in the new legal and fiscal environment created by the decentralization reform. The summary of the impact evaluation can be found in section three.