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    Political Economy of Extractives Governance in Sierra Leone
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-07) Fanthorpe, Richard ; Gabelle, Christopher
    Sierra Leone is still recovering from a brutal civil war (1991-2002), fuelled in part by a valuable and easily extractable natural resource (diamonds). Sierra Leone now stands on the verge of an unprecedented period of economic growth, driven primarily by revenues from large-scale iron ore mining. Yet it continues to face many governance and developmental challenges. The rapid rise of the extractives governance agenda in Sierra Leone requires an equally swift, yet strategic response from all stakeholders: the Government of Sierra Leone (GoSL), development partners (DPs), civil society organizations (CSOs), communities, and mining companies. This report uses a 'value chain' approach to mining governance which highlights the critical stages through which a resource dependent country is expected to progress as it seeks to transform resource rents into economic growth and sustainable human development. The objective of this study is ultimately to improve the management of the natural resource endowment, enjoyed by Sierra Leone, in a manner that will allow the revenues generated from natural resource extraction to contribute in an optimal manner towards sustainable economic growth. Specifically, the study focuses on mining (iron ore, diamonds, and other minerals) and to a much lesser extent, oil and gas. By using the 'theories of change' approach to political economy analysis, the report looks at the historical challenges around extractive governance, identifies systemic features, and characteristics of 'the problem', extrapolates and analyses the incentives shaping the activities and behaviors of key stakeholders, and then lays out a possible platform for engagement based on clearly identified entry points. This report is organized as follows: chapter one is introduction, chapter two presents a summary of previous analytical work on the political economy of Sierra Leone with special reference to the extractives sector, its governance past, and possible governance futures. Chapter three undertakes an in-depth analysis of the extractives value chain in Sierra Leone and chapter four identifies key stakeholders across this value chain, noting their influence on extractives management policy and implementation, their potential relationships with other stakeholders, and influence over policy outcomes. Chapter five identifies and highlights suitable entry points for policy dialogue on extractives-led governance in Sierra Leone and possible project and technical assistance interventions across the value chain.