Other Public Sector Study

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    Public Sector Employment and Compensation: An Assessment Framework
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-12-21) World Bank
    This paper aims to provide a framework for conducting public sector employment and compensation assessments that can help develop evidence-based reforms. Such a framework is necessary given growing debt distress and the need for greater expenditure efficiency in many of the World Bank’s client countries, and also due to the urgency for addressing global challenges like pandemics, climate change, building human capital, and reducing inequality, all of which require a strong role for the public sector.
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    Managing Groundwater for Drought Resilience in South Asia
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-01) World Bank
    This report presents the findings of a diagnostic study examining pathways and options for strengthening the governance of South Asia’s groundwater resources in the face of climate change and increasing reliance on the resource by dependent communities, particularly during times of drought. This study identifies, analyzes, and recommends management interventions that aid reforms of groundwater governance and, thus, greater sustainability of groundwater; in addition, these management interventions can strengthen drought resilience within the South Asia region. A broad analytical framework and a series of case studies comprise most of the report. These cover a range of policy and management approaches in different hydrogeological and socioeconomic settings with reference to key groundwater challenges. They provide insights and potential solutions, tailored to specific groundwater resources and contextual problems across South Asia.
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    Promoting Development in Shared River Basins: Tools for Enhancing Transboundary Basin Management
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-03-15) Leb, Christina ; Henshaw, Taylor ; Iqbal, Nausheen ; Rehberger Bescos, Irene
    Transboundary freshwater systems create inevitable linkages and interdependencies between countries. The use of shared water resources by one country will, in most cases, impact other countries sharing the same system. At the same time, coordination among countries in the development of transboundary basins can yield greater benefits than would be available to individual countries pursuing individual development. UN Sustainable Development Goal 6 Target 5 recognizes this potential, calling on the world community to implement integrated water resources management at all levels, “including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate.” With a growing number of basins in which water use and demand permanently or temporarily exceeds the amount of renewable water available, and uncertainty from climate change, SDG Target 6.5 becomes increasingly relevant to development interventions designed to secure availability of supplies and create resilience. This study aims to contribute to relevant knowledge for achieving SDG Target 6.5. It identifies an array of tools derived from the international experience that can be used by countries and development partners—distinguishing between tools available to each—in their efforts to develop more water secure economies and societies through harnessing the shared freshwater resources of transboundary basins, while also preventing or mitigating transboundary harm that may otherwise result. The study guides the reader through a three-stage process for choosing the most appropriate tools for the development and management of transboundary freshwater resources.
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    Promoting Development in Shared River Basins: Case Studies from International Experience
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-03) Altingoz, Mehmet ; Belinskij, Antti ; Bréthaut, Christian ; do Ó, Afonso ; Gevinian, Suren ; Hearns, Glen ; Keskinen, Marko ; McCracken, Melissa ; Ni, Vadim ; Solninen, Niko ; Wolf, Aaron T.
    Transboundary freshwater systems create inevitable linkages and interdependencies between countries. The use of shared water resources by one country will, in most cases, impact other countries sharing the same system. At the same time, coordination among countries in the development of transboundary basins can yield greater benefits than would be available to individual countries pursuing individual development. UN Sustainable Development Goal 6 Target 5 recognizes this potential, calling on the world community to implement integrated water resources management at all levels, ‘including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate’. With a growing number of basins in which water use and demand permanently or temporarily exceeds the amount of renewable water available, and uncertainty from climate change, SDG Target 6.5 becomes increasingly relevant to development interventions designed to secure availability of supplies and create resilience. This is a companion document to the study "Promoting Development in Shared River Basins: Tools for Enhancing Transboundary Basin Management," which aims to contribute to relevant knowledge for achieving SDG Target 6.5. It presents six case studies from international experience on coordinated management in transboundary basins: Kura-Araks Basin; Columbia Basin; Chu and Talas Basins; Vuoksi Basin; Douro Basin; and Rhône Basin. The case studies demonstrate real-world application of selecting appropriate tools for individual transboundary situations along a three-stage process of coordinated basin development, which is detailed in the main study.
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    Colombia: Policy Strategy for Public Financial Management of Natural Disaster Risk
    ( 2016-10) World Bank Group
    Disasters resulting from natural hazards represent an important challenge for Colombia’s fiscal sustainability and stability. Colombia is one of the countries with the highest recurrence rate of disasters caused by natural hazards in Latin America (see the Annex)1. As the country’s population and economy continue to grow, so will the economic losses resulting from such events, an average of 600 disaster events of which is reported per year2. Colombia’s rate of economic growth is increasing the base of assets exposed to disaster risks, which may lead to significant increases in losses, particularly if investments in new assets are not accompanied by plans for mitigating disaster risk. The Government of Colombia (GoC) recognizes the importance of mitigating these events and has taken several steps to mainstream disaster risk management into its policy and programs, as evinced by the National Development Plan ‘2014-2018’, ‘all for a New Country’. The MHCP is committed to developing strategies for reducing its contingent liabilities in relation to disasters and to managing the fiscal risk resulting from these events. This document presents the priority policy objectives that have been established to assess, reduce, and manage fiscal risk due to natural disasters. It also describes the MHCP’s efforts to progress its policy objectives in the long term. These policy objectives represent the MHCP’s ex ante policy framework regarding management of financial and fiscal disaster risk. The MHCP identifies three priority policy objectives in order to strengthen management of the Government’s contingent liabilities and thus support the goal of achieving macroeconomic stability and fiscal balance. The policy objectives are: (i) identification and understanding of fiscal risk due to disasters; (ii) financial management of natural disaster risk, including the implementation of innovative financial instruments; and (iii) catastrophe risk insurance for public assets.
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    The Kurdistan Region of Iraq: Reforming the Economy for Shared Prosperity and Protecting the Vulnerable
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-05-30) World Bank Group
    The Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI) is a constitutionally recognized semiautonomous region in northern Iraq. Its government, the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG), based in Erbil, has the right, under the Iraqi constitution of 2005, to exercise legislative, executive, and judicial powers according to the constitution, except in what is listed therein as exclusive powers of the federal authorities. The Iraqi constitution defines the Kurdistan Region as a federal entity of Iraq. KRG has a parliamentary democracy with a regional assembly that consists of 111 seats. KRI has been largely immune to the insecurity and conflict witnessed elsewhere in Iraq, especially following the 2003 Iraq War. KRG is facing a wide range of immediate and medium to longer-term challenges that are intrinsically linked to the overall macroeconomic situation of Iraq as well as the regional and global environment. The immediate challenge consists in coping with (a) the deep fiscal crisis, and (b) the security and social problems brought about by the conflict with the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) group and the resulting influx of Syrian refugees and Iraqi Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). These challenges are clearly immediate priorities for the KRG, and will bear significant repercussions nationally and internationally if inadequately addressed. The medium to longer-term challenges pertain to moderating dependence on the oil sector and transforming the KRI economy into a diversified one that supports private sector-led economic growth and job creation in a sustainable manner.
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    Developing Monitoring and Evaluation Systems for the National Climate Change and Low Carbon Green Growth Strategy and Action Plan in Romania
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-11) World Bank
    In support of the Climate Change and Low Carbon Green Growth Program of Romania (LCGGP), the World Bank has prepared the current report with the aim of helping the Romanian Government to operationalize the strategic path chosen by the country for implementing its National Climate Change and Low Carbon Green Growth Strategy 2016-20302 (NSCC) and the associated 2016-2020 Action Plan for Climate Change (APCC). This includes some relevant institutional arrangements and Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) activities for existing Climate Change (CC) related policies and measures, notably those derived from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol, plus the requirements for European Union (EU) Member States regarding the monitoring and evaluation of the EU-level climate and energy package and the Europe 2020 goals for a smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. It was recommended that the Romanian government should build upon current obligations for M&E of public policies, whilst recognizing that the M&E system initially established for the NSCC and APCC for Romania must not be considered as static, but rather as an on-going continuum that will evolve, expand and improve over time. The report highlights some key weaknesses in institutional capacity for CC-related M&E and identifies several sector-specific examples of areas for improvement. The report usefully reviews international good practices for the M&E of CC strategies and action plans under the headings of General good practice; Green Growth good practices; Special considerations for CC adaptation (including the selection of indicators), and; European examples (including short case studies on relevant M&E practices from Germany and France). In order to facilitate the necessary learning processes for policy-makers and other key stakeholders it is recommended that the Romanian government adopts a “theory-based” approach (in conjunction with the OECD DAC criteria) as the evaluation framework for the NSCC and APCC. The theory-based approach follows an iterative process of design, evaluation, and redesign based on lessons learned about whether specific interventions are successful or not, why they succeeded or failed and how they can be improved. The report concludes with numerous additional practical recommendations for development of a simple, affordable and cost effective M&E system for the NSCC and APCC. These recommendations are grouped into four categories: (i) general recommendations; (ii) recommendations for improving institutional arrangements; (iii) recommendations for developing a solid evaluation framework; and (iv) recommendations for reporting. Finally, to ensure a robust framework, the M&E and Reporting system should clearly define goals, indicators, responsibilities and communication strategies. It should facilitate continuous learning by policy-makers and other key stakeholders in order to underpin the long-term development of the knowledge and understanding needed to better design, implement and deliver future CC strategies and action plans for Romania.
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    Water and Wastewater Services in the Danube Region: Bulgaria Country Note
    (Washington, DC, 2015-05) World Bank
    To evaluate and reflect the sustainability of services in the region, an overall sector sustainability assessment was done taking into account four main dimensions: access to services, quality of services, efficiency of services, and financing of services. Each of these dimensions is measured through three simple and objective indicators. For each indicator, best practice values are established by looking at the best performers in the region, and countries closest to those best performers are deemed to have a more mature sector. A more complete description of the methodology to assess the sector sustainability is included in the Annex of the State of the Sector Regional Report from the Danube Water Program. The outcomes of this assessment for Bulgaria’s water sector are presented, which also shows average and best practices in the Danube region. The Bulgarian sector sustainability score is 66, which is just above Danube average sustainability of 64. The assessment shows that, on average, the country performs well in terms of access to piped water, staffing level, and nonrevenue water. The main deficiencies of Bulgaria’s water sector identified through the sector sustainability assessment are operating cost coverage, investment level, and customer satisfaction level.
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    Water and Wastewater Services in the Danube Region: Austria Country Note
    (Washington, DC, 2015-05) World Bank
    To evaluate and reflect the sustainability of services in the region, an overall sector maturity assessment was done taking into account four main dimensions: access to services, quality of services, efficiency of services, and financing of services. Each of these dimensions is measured through three simple and objective indicators. For each indicator, best practice values are established by looking at the best performers in the region, and countries closest to those best performers are deemed to have a more mature sector. A more complete description of the methodology to assess the sector maturity is included in the annex of the state of the sector regional report from the Danube Water Program. The outcomes of this assessment for the Austrian water sector are presented, which also shows average and best practices in the Danube region. The Austrian sector maturity score is 96, which is significantly higher than the Danube average maturity of 64, and the highest score in the region. The assessment shows that, on average, the country performs very well in terms of access to piped water and flushes toilet, wastewater treatment coverage, customer satisfaction, continuity of service, wastewater compliance, collection ratio, and nonrevenue water.
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    Water and Wastewater Services in the Danube Region: Bosnia and Herzegovina Country Note
    (Washington, DC, 2015-05) World Bank
    In order to evaluate the sustainability of services in the region, an overall sector maturity assessment was done taking into account four main dimensions: access to services, quality of services, efficiency of services, and financing of services. Each of these dimensions is measured through three simple and objective indicators. For each indicator, best practice values are established by looking at the best performers in the region, and countries closest to those best performers are deemed to have a more mature sector. A more complete description of the methodology to assess sector maturity is included in the annex of the state of the sector Regional Report from the Danube Water Program. The outcomes of this assessment for the Bosnia and Herzegovina water sector are displayed in Figure 10, which also shows average and best practices in the Danube region. The BiH sector maturity score is 57, which is close to the Danube average maturity of 64. The assessment shows that, on average, the country performs well in terms of access to piped water and flush toilets, and customer satisfaction. With regard to the BiH water sector, the main deficiencies identified through the sector maturity assessment are level of investment, staffing level, and wastewater treatment coverage.