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Ethiopia: Modelling the Impact of Tobacco Tax Policy Reforms on Tobacco Use and Domestic Resources Mobilization Under Different Scenarios(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-01-23) World Bank GroupAs part of the ongoing tax policy dialogue with the Government of Ethiopia, the World BankGroup organized a workshop in Addis Ababa, on June 20, 2016, to discuss tobacco use, its healthimpact, and excise taxes on tobacco as a public policy measure to reduce tobacco use, and hencethe risk of ill health, premature mortality, and disability due to tobacco-related diseases, andmobilize additional domestic resources to expand the fiscal capacity of the government, inaccordance with the Financing for Development Addis Ababa Action Agenda. This event wasattended by officials from the Ministry of Health (MOH) and Ministry of Finance & EconomicCooperation (MoFEC). Ethiopia's Health Sector Transformation Plan 2015-2020 lists noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) as one of the major public health challenges facing the country. As in the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, NCDs are expected to become the leading cause of ill health and death by 2030, influenced by rapid urbanization, rapid per capita economic growth, increase in behavioral risk factors (most NCDs are the result of tobacco use, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, and/or the harmful use of alcohol), and improvements in the control of infectious diseases that increase life expectancy. As NCDs have become a major health burden in the country, the Government has put in place ambitious targets to reduce the prevalence of the main health risk factors associated with the onset of NCDs among the population. The strategy focuses on increasing prevention and control of the main risk factors: tobacco use and alcohol abuse, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet, which contribute to about 80 percent of NCDs.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-03-29) World BankEthiopia is a highly decentralized country. Presently, sub-national government taxes and revenues account for about 28 percent of general taxes and revenues, and sub-national expenditures amount to 51 percent of general government expenditures. The ensuing vertical mismatch is bridged by grants from the Federal government to the regions. Presently, these grants account for 57 percent of sub-national expenditures1. For many years, these grants consisted mostly of a block grant (the Federal General Purpose Grant) given without any strings attached, which means the regions could use it as they wished. The rest of the report is organized as follows. Section two provides the policy context that is the information, data, evolutions, etc. specific to Ethiopia, which are necessary to understand and interpret the MDGs grant policy. Section three present and discusses the policy content that is the components of the policy previously identified. Section four is a policy assessment, which utilizes the evaluation framework proposed above to analyze the relationships between the various components of the policy, and discuss its efficiency, its effectiveness and its success. Section five is a conclusion that summarizes the analysis, and attempts, prudently and modestly, to outline some potential avenues for future action.