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Responding to the Challenge of Fragility and Security in West Africa: Natural Resources, Extractive Industry Investment, and Social Conflict(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015) Maconachie, Roy ; Srinivasan, Radhika ; Menzies, NicholasThe inability to unlock natural resource wealth for the benefit of developing countries’ local populations, a phenomenon popularly known as the ‘resource curse’ or the ‘paradox of plenty’, has spawned extensive debate among researchers and policy makers in recent years. There is now a well-established body of literature exploring the links between natural resources and conflict, with some sources estimating that over the past 60 years, 40 percent of civil wars have been associated with natural resources. Following this introduction, Section two provides an overview of interstate tensions in West Africa in order to improve understanding of the drivers of fragility that trigger conflict between countries around extractive industry investment. Here, the discussion is grounded in examples in which interstate tensions have been apparent, including the case of the Mano River Union, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, a region with a history of conflict, and where the exploitation of commercial deposits of high-value resources may continue to have a potentially destabilizing effect. Section three focuses on the decentralization of natural resource revenues, a process that proponents believe can help manage grievances and defuse intrastate tension in areas directly affected by resource extraction, but one that is also not without challenges. Drawing upon the case of Ghana’s Mineral Development Fund, the section explores the potential for conflict (and conflict triggers) to arise when the redistribution of extractive industry revenues to subnational regions takes place. In doing so, it becomes apparent that the capture and misuse of revenues from the fund is as much a political issue as it is a policy or technical one. This sets the stage for section four, which focuses in greater detail on extractive industry-related conflict within catchment communities, and how contestation is most often a result of unequal power relationships. Section five, the conclusion, summarizes and reflects upon some of the challenges and struggles over resource management associated with West Africa’s recent resource boom, and draws out some of the cross-cutting themes. Here, suitable entry points for future lines of inquiry and engagement are identified.
Publication(Washington, DC, 2014-05) World BankSouth Sudan is a new country of 10.5 million people that has just emerged from conflict and still facing challenges with recovery and development. Although economic disparities, political exclusion and deprivation in the distribution of political and economic power between the northern and southern parts of then united Sudan were often tendered as the proximal causes of the conflict, at the center of the prolonged civil war was the struggle for ownership, control and use of land resources. The tool underpinning this report is the Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF), a diagnostic instrument for rapid evaluation of various aspects of land governance. LGAF was developed through a collaborative effort between the World Bank, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), UN Habitat, International Fund for Agriculture Development (IFAD), the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the African Union (AU).
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-07) Fanthorpe, Richard ; Gabelle, ChristopherSierra Leone is still recovering from a brutal civil war (1991-2002), fuelled in part by a valuable and easily extractable natural resource (diamonds). Sierra Leone now stands on the verge of an unprecedented period of economic growth, driven primarily by revenues from large-scale iron ore mining. Yet it continues to face many governance and developmental challenges. The rapid rise of the extractives governance agenda in Sierra Leone requires an equally swift, yet strategic response from all stakeholders: the Government of Sierra Leone (GoSL), development partners (DPs), civil society organizations (CSOs), communities, and mining companies. This report uses a 'value chain' approach to mining governance which highlights the critical stages through which a resource dependent country is expected to progress as it seeks to transform resource rents into economic growth and sustainable human development. The objective of this study is ultimately to improve the management of the natural resource endowment, enjoyed by Sierra Leone, in a manner that will allow the revenues generated from natural resource extraction to contribute in an optimal manner towards sustainable economic growth. Specifically, the study focuses on mining (iron ore, diamonds, and other minerals) and to a much lesser extent, oil and gas. By using the 'theories of change' approach to political economy analysis, the report looks at the historical challenges around extractive governance, identifies systemic features, and characteristics of 'the problem', extrapolates and analyses the incentives shaping the activities and behaviors of key stakeholders, and then lays out a possible platform for engagement based on clearly identified entry points. This report is organized as follows: chapter one is introduction, chapter two presents a summary of previous analytical work on the political economy of Sierra Leone with special reference to the extractives sector, its governance past, and possible governance futures. Chapter three undertakes an in-depth analysis of the extractives value chain in Sierra Leone and chapter four identifies key stakeholders across this value chain, noting their influence on extractives management policy and implementation, their potential relationships with other stakeholders, and influence over policy outcomes. Chapter five identifies and highlights suitable entry points for policy dialogue on extractives-led governance in Sierra Leone and possible project and technical assistance interventions across the value chain.