Other Public Sector Study

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    Identification for Development Country Diagnostic: Uganda
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-11-01) World Bank
    In today’s digital age, robust, inclusive, and responsible civil registration and identification systems play an important role in providing citizens with a legal identity and generating vital and demographic statistics. Universal coverage of these systems improves the accessibility, integrity, effectiveness, and efficiency of public and private services. Experience in Estonia, India, Peru, South Africa, Thailand, and other countries has shown that an effective national identification system can accelerate progress in addressing key development and governance challenges, such as financial inclusion, universal healthcare coverage, and digitizing and integrating services in the public and private sectors. The ID4D diagnostic was undertaken between November 2017 and June 2018 at the request from the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Government of Uganda under the umbrella of the World Bank’s Identification for Development (ID4D) initiative.This work was done with excellent collaboration from NIRA’s management and personnel. Its objective was to analyze the identification ecosystem in Uganda, highlight strengths and achievements, suggest areas of improvement, and build consensus around recommendations and next steps. This was done through in-person interviews with over40 government and private stakeholders, a field visit, and a literature review. Draft findings and recommendations were presented at a consultation workshop in August 2018, attended by over 50 experts representing 30 MDAs and private sector organizations. Feedback from the workshop is reflected in the report.
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    Integrating Social Accountability in Healthcare Delivery: Lessons Drawn from Kenya
    (World Bank Group, Washington, DC, 2015-02) Wangũi Machira, Yvonne
    The Constitution of Kenya provides that most functions of the state are decentralized in a devolution process. The devolved health system is four tiered: community health services, primary care services, county referral services, and national referral services. However, even though roles and responsibilities are elaborately outlined, in practice the transition from national to county governments has been marred by inconsistency, poor understanding of the system, management challenges, and lack of coordination between the national and county governments. This policy note provides observations from a pilot that tested integration of social accountability mechanisms in healthcare delivery in Kenya between 2011 and 2013.
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    Responding to the Challenge of Fragility and Security in West Africa: Natural Resources, Extractive Industry Investment, and Social Conflict
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015) Maconachie, Roy ; Srinivasan, Radhika ; Menzies, Nicholas
    The inability to unlock natural resource wealth for the benefit of developing countries’ local populations, a phenomenon popularly known as the ‘resource curse’ or the ‘paradox of plenty’, has spawned extensive debate among researchers and policy makers in recent years. There is now a well-established body of literature exploring the links between natural resources and conflict, with some sources estimating that over the past 60 years, 40 percent of civil wars have been associated with natural resources. Following this introduction, Section two provides an overview of interstate tensions in West Africa in order to improve understanding of the drivers of fragility that trigger conflict between countries around extractive industry investment. Here, the discussion is grounded in examples in which interstate tensions have been apparent, including the case of the Mano River Union, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, a region with a history of conflict, and where the exploitation of commercial deposits of high-value resources may continue to have a potentially destabilizing effect. Section three focuses on the decentralization of natural resource revenues, a process that proponents believe can help manage grievances and defuse intrastate tension in areas directly affected by resource extraction, but one that is also not without challenges. Drawing upon the case of Ghana’s Mineral Development Fund, the section explores the potential for conflict (and conflict triggers) to arise when the redistribution of extractive industry revenues to subnational regions takes place. In doing so, it becomes apparent that the capture and misuse of revenues from the fund is as much a political issue as it is a policy or technical one. This sets the stage for section four, which focuses in greater detail on extractive industry-related conflict within catchment communities, and how contestation is most often a result of unequal power relationships. Section five, the conclusion, summarizes and reflects upon some of the challenges and struggles over resource management associated with West Africa’s recent resource boom, and draws out some of the cross-cutting themes. Here, suitable entry points for future lines of inquiry and engagement are identified.