Other Public Sector Study

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    Liberia Forestry Development Authority: An Institutional Capacity Assessment
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-01) World Bank Group
    This report presents the findings from an institutional capacity assessment of Liberia's Forestry Development Authority (FDA) based on a survey of FDA employees. The FDA plays a pivotal role in managing Liberia's forest resources, and its Strategic Plan (2018–2030) prioritizes institutional strengthening for achieving its vision of “sustainable forestry for sustainable development.” The FDA employee survey was conducted to provide scientific evidence on the main organizational and personnel dimensions of institutional capacity, including staff skills, management practices, staff attitudes and behaviors, experiences of corruption and undue political interference, stakeholder interaction, and factors determining project success. A total of 438 FDA employees, or approximately 82 percent of the staff, were interviewed, and the sample covered Monrovia andthe field offices. The survey’s findings are relevant to key FDA strategic pillars of improving staff productivity, strengthening internal governance, and improving the agency’s customer service charter. These findings identify four key reform pillars that, when supported by a strong foundation of better data and more regular monitoring and evaluation, will help strengthen FDA’s institutional capacity: improving skills through merit-based recruitment and competency-based training; stronger management practices, in particular, performance assessments, targeting and monitoring; more equitable pay; and greater community engagement. Administrative data and regular staff surveys can be the basis of a key set of indicators on public employment and management that the FDA can use to assess progress toward institutional strengthening.
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    Regulatory Governance for Development and Growth: Malaysia's Experience with Good Regulatory Practices
    (World Bank, Malaysia, 2019-06) World Bank Group
    Good Regulatory Practices (GRP) are a systematic application of tools, institutions, and procedures that governments can mobilize to ensure that regulatory outcomes are effective, transparent, inclusive, and sustained. Other terms used for GRP include ‘regulatory governance’ and ‘better regulation.’ Among the most common GRP tools used by governments are: public consultation, ex ante regulatory impact analysis (RIA), ex post review of existing regulations, administrative simplification, access to laws and regulations, forward regulatory planning, and regulatory oversight functions. This report focuses on GRP because by improving the regulatory environment, they can boost conditions for sustainable growth and investment. This is evidenced, among others, in the World Bank Group’s Global Investment Competitiveness Report 2017-2018, which surveyed 750 investors in developing and transition economies. The report found that next to ‘political stability and security’, the ‘legal and regulatory environment’ was the most important consideration of senior executives when making investment decisions (WBG, 2018). Similarly, evidence shows a positive relationship between the improvement of the regulatory environment and aggregate investment (and economic growth), suggesting that countries stand to gain from a broad push for streamlining regulations and procedures affecting business (Eifert, 2009). The report reflects on Malaysia’s formal experience with GRP because, although launched only relatively recently, results have been remarkable. Malaysia has demonstrated that more business-friendly regulations and a more favorable regulatory environment can contribute to economic growth and investment. Moreover, Malaysia’s regulatory reform success has been reflected in many international indicators, such as the Global Indicators of Regulatory Governance, Worldwide Governance Indicators, Doing Business, (all produced by the WBG) and those from the World Economic Forum that measure the burden of government regulations and transparency of the policymaking process. International indicators measuring GRP performance show that Malaysia is converging with high-income OECD countries.
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    South Africa ID Case Study
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-05) World Bank Group
    South Africa’s approach to identification offers valuable lessons for countries looking to increase the coverage, robustness, and use of their ID systems. Since the end of apartheid, South Africa’s national identification system has been transformed from a tool of oppression to one for inclusion and the delivery of social services. The ID system is now closely integrated with civil registration, boasts high coverage among all segments of the population, and has been instrumental for effective service delivery and a cost effective electoral process.
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    Gabon: Assessment of the Impact of Tobacco Excise Tax Increases on Price, Consumption and Tax Revenue over 2018-2021
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-04-25) World Bank Group
    This report presents the results of the assessment that simulates the fiscal revenue and consumption impact of proposed tobacco tax increases in Gabon in the period 2018–2021.
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    Stimulating Business Angels in the Czech Republic
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-10) World Bank Group
    This report provides a systematic assessment of business angel activities, and the ecosystem surrounding innovation finance, in the Czech Republic. Based on literature reviews, published data sources and local stakeholder interviews, the report distills findings related to the demand for and supply of risk investments, and offers policy recommendations for stimulating business angels. The report characterizes the Angel ecosystem as emerging with potential for growth. It is small both in terms of the number of investors and the amount invested. There appears to be a general lack of syndication of investments and concentration of investments in the capital (Prague) and in the information, communication, and technology (ICT) sector. On the demand side, a credible deal flow does exist, although it falls short of constituting a critical mass needed to support the development of the market. While issues in the local environment may affect the flow of angel investments, these are not insurmountable, based on the country’s competitive ranking on relevant global and European indicators. Finally, the report proposes a number of policy recommendations for enhancing business angel awareness and investments, including data collection and mapping of early stage market activities (short-term), creation of Czech National Angel Association (medium-term), and implementation of incentivization measures such as co-investment funds and tax incentives (long-term).
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    Reducing Tobacco Use Through Taxation in the Russian Federation: A Modelled Assessment of Two Policy Options
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-10-01) World Bank Group
    This report presents results of the modelling exercise in terms of excise tax increases for the period 2018–2021, including average excise tax and revenue mobilization options; it also compares the tobacco excise tax already included in the country's current tax code with that necessary to achieve proposed EU minimum rates by 2021 (Minimum EU excise tax rates scenario).
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    Improving Public Sector Performance: Through Innovation and Inter-Agency Coordination
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-10) World Bank Group
    This report is an inaugural issue in a new series that aims to offer a fresh look at how developing countries are overcoming persistent problems in public sector management. Significant improvements in public sector performance are being evidenced across the developing world today, as government officials and political leaders find new and innovative ways to tackle long-standing challenges. Part I of this report demonstrates that public sector performance is being pursued diligently and successfully across a variety of country contexts, including in low-income environments. Through surveying its governance specialists from around the globe, the World Bank has assembled a collection of 15 cases that showcase how lessons from global experience are being adapted and applied in practice. The report also explores common success drivers that appear in each of the cases. Part II focuses on a special, cross-cutting topic that is critical to public sector performance -- policy and inter-agency coordination. As the responsibilities of government have grown in volume and complexity, policy and program coordination has become ever more challenging, and the stakes have never been higher. Enhancing coordination will depend not only on the adopted formal institutional mechanisms, but also on their interplay with the broader institutional environment and with other processes that influence coordination.
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    Toolkit for Impact Evaluation of Public Credit Guarantee Schemes for SMEs
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-09) World Bank Group
    Limited access to finance, particularly bank credit, is a long-standing hurdle for Small and Medium Enterprise (SMEs), with varying severity of financing constraints across countries. SMEs face higher transaction costs and higher risk premiums since they are typically more opaque and have less or inadequate collateral to offer. Financing is also a major constraint in advanced economies, where financing gaps for SMEs were exacerbated by the 2008-2009 financial and economic crisis. SMEs face higher transaction costs and higher risk premiums since they are typically more opaque and have less or inadequate collateral to offer. These market failures and imperfections provide the rationale for government intervention in SME credit markets. An increasingly popular form of government intervention is represented by credit guarantee schemes (CGSs). These are specialized institutions or programs set up by the government which pledge to repay some or the entire loan amount to the lender in case of default of the SME borrower. The toolkit for impact evaluation of public credit guarantee schemes for SMEs has been created with the objective of identifying a set of uniform methodologies for assessing the financial and economic impact of public CGSs as systematically and objectively as possible. After the introductory Module, the Toolkit is divided in nine parts. Module 2 provides an overview of impact evaluation and introduces different modalities of impact evaluation such as prospective and retrospective evaluations. Module 3 provides a roadmap for designing and implementing a CGS impact evaluation. The later modules (5 through 10) finally touch upon some operational steps to implement an impact evaluation such as collecting data, setting the evaluation team, budgeting and timing for the evaluation, and producing and disseminating the results.
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    Securing Water for Development in West Bank and Gaza: Sector Note
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-06-15) World Bank Group
    This note aims at describing the most challenging issues that face water and sanitation sector in West Bank and Gaza (WB&G) and highlighting the possible actions that can improve Palestinian water security. The WB&G Water Supply, Sanitation and Poverty Diagnostic (June 6, 2018) study that has been done by the World Bank, which this note depends on its analysis, concluded that WB&G is a water-scarce lower-middle-income territory with a relatively water-dependent economy and is vulnerable within its geopolitical setting; thus, assuring water security is a priority. Water security requires adequate water resources that are well managed, including management of risks, and water service providers (SPs) that provide sustainable, efficient, and equitable services. The goal of water security has been receding in recent years. Therefore, to improve water security, the sector note recommended two pathways; (a) efficient use of natural and financial resources, (b) collaborative solutions within the region and the Palestinians to improve access to water supply and protect resources, and four pillars; (i) addressing water supply and demand gap, (ii) strengthening the water sector institutions, (iii) enhancing the financial viability and sustainability; (iv) attracting other development partners, including strong cooperation and coordination with Israel.
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    Institutional Assessment of the Central Statistics Organization of Afghanistan
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-06-01) World Bank Group
    Afghanistan has achieved substantial development progress since 2001, but faces important upcoming challenges. Government efforts supported by aid inflows have fueled rapid economic growth, expanded the quality of and access to basic social services, and improved the capacity of public sector institutions. However, deterioration in the security situation following the security transition in 2014 combined with declining international assistance pose formidable challenges for Afghanistan to manage its economy and deliver public services. The availability of high quality, reliable economic, socio-economic, and demographic statistics is vital if appropriate policy responses to these challenges are to be identified and implemented.