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Barriers to the Inclusion of Women and Marginalized Groups in Nigeria’s ID System: Findings and Solutions from an In-Depth Qualitative Study(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021) Hanmer, Lucia ; Esquivel-Korsiak, Victoria ; Pande, RohiniAn estimated one billion people around the world do not have an officially recognized means of identification (ID). The majority live in low-income countries (LICs), particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. This study contributes to an overarching goal of building global knowledge about increasing women’s and marginalized groups’ access to and use of IDs to promote development. There is little systematic evidence about the causes of gender gaps or the exclusion of particular groups from possession of government-recognized IDs. The study aims to analyze gaps in access to the national ID issued by Nigeria’s National Identity Management Commission (NIMC), and provide evidence-based advice to policy makers on how to lift the constraints that create high barriers for women and marginalized groups.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-11-13) World BankGhana’s tax collection is low compared with other lower middle-income countries. Non-compliance of tax payments is an urgent issue in Ghana, as the government has been suffering from a widening fiscal deficit and a rising debt burden. Learning from experiences in other countries, this report proposes potential interventions that could improve tax compliance.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-11-13) World BankThe objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the tax gap in Ghana, and help the Government of Ghana identify the areas where they can increase tax revenue by improving compliance. Tax gap for corporate income tax, import tax, estimated value added tax, and potential tax revenue from formalization of informal firms were investigated.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-01) World Bank GroupThis report presents the findings from an institutional capacity assessment of Liberia's Forestry Development Authority (FDA) based on a survey of FDA employees. The FDA plays a pivotal role in managing Liberia's forest resources, and its Strategic Plan (2018–2030) prioritizes institutional strengthening for achieving its vision of “sustainable forestry for sustainable development.” The FDA employee survey was conducted to provide scientific evidence on the main organizational and personnel dimensions of institutional capacity, including staff skills, management practices, staff attitudes and behaviors, experiences of corruption and undue political interference, stakeholder interaction, and factors determining project success. A total of 438 FDA employees, or approximately 82 percent of the staff, were interviewed, and the sample covered Monrovia andthe field offices. The survey’s findings are relevant to key FDA strategic pillars of improving staff productivity, strengthening internal governance, and improving the agency’s customer service charter. These findings identify four key reform pillars that, when supported by a strong foundation of better data and more regular monitoring and evaluation, will help strengthen FDA’s institutional capacity: improving skills through merit-based recruitment and competency-based training; stronger management practices, in particular, performance assessments, targeting and monitoring; more equitable pay; and greater community engagement. Administrative data and regular staff surveys can be the basis of a key set of indicators on public employment and management that the FDA can use to assess progress toward institutional strengthening.