Items in this collection
PublicationThe World Bank's Support for Subnational Governance in Large Federal Countries: Lessons Learned from Argentina, Brazil and Nigeria(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022) Stoykov, Petar Georgiev; Yilmaz, SerdarLimited local tax revenue and low public sector efficiency are two critical problems of public sector management and key constraints for the economic and social development of many subnational governments in large federal countries. To create fiscal space without compromising macroeconomic stability and fiscal sustainability, there is a need for reforms that lead to better use of public resources and improved expenditure efficiency through reforms in budgeting, procurement, and tax administration. This note presents lessons learned from the World Bank’s subnational governance projects in three large federal countries - Argentina, Brazil and Nigeria - between 2008-2017. These lessons learned can be useful in shaping the design of future subnational governance projects in other federal countries, particularly those projects seeking to improve service delivery, public expenditure systems and core governance institutions. PublicationPublic Sector Employment and Compensation: An Assessment Framework(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-12-21) World BankThis paper aims to provide a framework for conducting public sector employment and compensation assessments that can help develop evidence-based reforms. Such a framework is necessary given growing debt distress and the need for greater expenditure efficiency in many of the World Bank’s client countries, and also due to the urgency for addressing global challenges like pandemics, climate change, building human capital, and reducing inequality, all of which require a strong role for the public sector. PublicationEthics and Corruption in the Federal Public Service: Civil Servants' Perspectives(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-12-09) World BankThis Survey on Ethics and Corruption in the Federal Public Service was held online from April 28 to May 28, 2021, in partnership with the Office of the Federal Comptroller General (CGU), the Ministry of the Economy, and the National School of Public Administration (ENAP). All civil servants were represented in the sample, totaling 22,130 respondents. The sample covered all federative units and ministries. Most civil servants report having witnessed some sort of unethical practice during their time in the public sector. Of all respondents, 58.7 percent stated that they witnessed some unethical practice during their career in public service. The most frequent practices were using one's position to help friends or family and bending the rules under pressure from one’s superiors. Over the past three years, around one third of all civil servants (33.4 percent) witnessed some unethical practice, according to their reports. Corruption in the public service is multifaceted, thus requiring granular information about its nature, prevalence, and vulnerable actors. In view of its scope, thematic scope, and representativeness, the data generated by the study could become a valuable source for the development of knowledge about corruption in the federal public service. We hope that this Survey on Ethics and Corruption in the Federal Public Service becomes a tool to complement current and future efforts to fight corruption. PublicationThe Evolving Role of the Planning Function: International Experience and Reform Options for India(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-11-01) World BankThis note presents the main trends in strategic planning across public sector administrations in seven countries: Australia, Canada, Brazil, Mexico, Malaysia, South Korea, and Colombia. It was prepared in response to the Indian Government's interest in understanding the emerging trends in the evolution of strategic planning in a range of countries and effectively adapting this function across public administration at the national and subnational levels. PublicationID4D Country Diagnostic: Central African Republic(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-10-19) World BankThis diagnostic has been conducted with the sole purpose of serving the ongoing development of social protection policy in the country. It is the Bank’s hope that the report will be useful for social protection policy development as intended. The Bank has not agreed with the government to invest in the civil registration and identification sector. The government may consider the use of this report for the activities it will undertake to seek support from the international donor community for such an investment. The report is organized into the following sections: section one gives introduction. Section two examines the identity ecosystem in Central African Republic (CAR) and presents the stakeholders on the supply and demand sides, the identity schemes, the legal framework, and the specific post-crisis identity context; and section three presents the analysis conducted by the World Bank Group and details the main recommendations to build on so social protection actors can promote an efficient and reliable identity ecosystem that can serve the entire Central African population, starting from the most vulnerable. PublicationDelivering Together: Using Indonesia's Village Law to Optimize Frontline Service Delivery(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-08-19) World BankOver the past twenty years, Indonesia has pursued an ambitious policy agenda for decentralization. Indonesia's subnational governments play a key role in providing frontline services. In 2014, Indonesia's Village Law ushered in a new chapter in the country's decentralization agenda. The law establishes a legal and financial foundation for villages to contribute to Indonesia's rural development. In 2020, village transfers accounted for around ten percent of all subnational transfers, playing an important role in Indonesia's Coronavirus (COVID-19) response strategy. Despite these positive results, several frontier issues in the overall decentralization agenda hinder villages' contributing potential to improving frontline service delivery. This report categorizes these structural challenges into four broad categories of regulatory challenges, coordination gaps, limited capacity building systems, and fragmentation in accountability systems. The report aims to show how overcoming these structural challenges can enable the government to institutionalize systems of accountability and participation into its wider service delivery framework. PublicationWorldwide Bureaucracy Indicators: Methodology, Insights, and Applications(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-08-18) World BankWhat is the appropriate level of employment in the public sector as a whole and for essential workers like public administrators, teachers, and doctors? Is the public sector wage bill affordable? Does the public sector pay competitive wages compared to the private sector to attract talent while not crowding out private sector jobs? Does the public sector pay equal wages to workers in similar jobs and with similar skills? Does the public sector promote gender equality in employment? And are public sector pay and employment practices contributing to higher public sector productivity, better service delivery, and improved governance? The Worldwide Bureaucracy Indicators (WWBI) were developed in response to growing calls to provide more empirical foundation to similar questions on the public workforce. This report sets out to introduce the Indicators estimated from microdata drawn from the labor force and household welfare surveys and augmented with administrative data for 202 economies covering the demographics of the private and public sector workforces, relative wages and premiums, and the public sector wage bill. The report details the methodology used to construct the WWBI, including a description of the data sources and estimations used for the different indicators, presents the main findings emerging from the dataset on core questions, and presents potential policy and research applications of the dataset. PublicationUsing New Data to Support Tax Treaty Negotiation(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-07-12) World BankThis paper introduces the new Tax Treaties Explorer dataset, developed with support from the World Bank and the G-24, and illustrates its use for research by tax treaty negotiators, policy makers, and researchers. The new dataset provides a rich source of data to reexamine existing tax treaty policy, inform negotiation positions, and assess treaty networks. For the first time, it provides a tool to analyze trends in the content of tax treaties, across individual agreements, over time, and between countries. To illustrate the value of such an approach, we replicate a study by Barthel, Busse, and Neumayer (2009), which found a positive association between the presence of a tax treaty and the bilateral stock of FDI. We show that this effect is mainly driven by the withholding tax rates in the treaty rather than by other provisions affecting taxing rights such as permanent establishment. If the outcomes of this proof-of-concept replication are borne out in future research, this would suggest that negotiators can seek the maximum protection of source taxing rights in other parts of the treaty, knowing that this is unlikely to dilute investment-promoting impacts. PublicationArchipelagic Economies: Spatial Economic Development in the Pacific(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-07-12) Utz, Robert J.; Utz, Robert J.This study explores the far-reaching economic consequences emerging from the archipelagic nature of most Pacific Island countries (PICs). The dispersion of populations across thousands of miles of ocean and hundreds of islands magnifies the economic disadvantages arising from the remoteness and small size that characterize the PICs as a whole. At the same time, population dispersion creates extraordinary challenges related to public service delivery, connectivity, migration and urbanization, and the equity and inclusiveness of economic development. This study focuses on these challenges in pursuit of two main objectives: deepening the understanding of socio-economic conditions on the PICs’ outer islands and the drivers of migration from outer islands to main islands; and reviewing the policy and investment options for fostering the socio-economic development of outer islands populations. This overview summarizes the main findings in five parts. First, the authors present the objectives and outline of the full report. This is followed by a section which explains how the PICs’ external and internal geography are key determinants of socio-economic development outcomes and spatial inequalities. The third part presents data on spatial inequality with respect to a range of socio-economic indicators, public services, connectivity, and migration. In the fourth part, the authors discuss interactions between geographic dispersion and key political economy issues that shape spatial economic policy decisions and outcomes. The report concludes with a summary of policy options for dealing with the development challenges arising from geographic dispersion. PublicationThe Gambia Integrated State-Owned Enterprises Framework (iSOEF) Assessment(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2021-06-29) World BankThis report applies the new World Bank integrated State-Owned Enterprises Framework (iSOEF) methodology to assess The Gambia´s SOE sector and its current reform trends. The report provides one of the first comprehensive applications of the World Bank’s new iSOEF methodology in Africa by providing first a landscape of SOEs in The Gambia, and then addressing key aspects for assessing SOEs, namely: “Effects on Markets”; “Fiscal Impact”; and “Corporate Governance and Accountability Mechanisms”. Leveraging the World Bank’s expertise across its Equitable Growth, Finance, and Institutions (EFI) Vice Presidency, this multidimensional assessment looks at the interrelationships of the challenges and opportunities faced by the Gambia´s SOEs to propose holistic and sequenced recommendations to strengthen their governance and performance. The primary audience of the iSOEF is the Government of The Gambia, in particular the Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs (MOFEA) and other relevant stakeholders.