Other Public Sector Study

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  • Publication
    The Evolving Role of the Planning Function: International Experience and Reform Options for India
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-11-01) World Bank
    This note presents the main trends in strategic planning across public sector administrations in seven countries: Australia, Canada, Brazil, Mexico, Malaysia, South Korea, and Colombia. It was prepared in response to the Indian Government's interest in understanding the emerging trends in the evolution of strategic planning in a range of countries and effectively adapting this function across public administration at the national and subnational levels.
  • Publication
    Opportunities and Challenges for Public Procurement in the First Months of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Results From an Experts Survey
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-19) World Bank
    The COVID-19 pandemic created unprecedented circumstances and challenges in many dimensions, without clear ex ante directions and guidance on the best strategies for coping with the emergency, including in public procurement. As a result, especially in the first months of the pandemic, governments responded to the COVID-19 crisis in myriad ways. To rationalize and take stock of these diverse experiences and challenges, the World Bank’s Procurement and Standards Global Unit and Development Impact Evaluation (DIME) unit conducted an International Survey of Procurement Specialists and Experts to document the legal and administrative framework for national emergency public procurement in the first months after the global COVID-19 outbreak. The survey was implemented between May and August 2020 and received 136 contributions covering 103 countries. The authors find that (a) some countries relied more heavily on high-risk procedures than on the procedures considered critical for effective and efficient emergency procurement; (b) lack of clarity on procurement needs and lack of coordination were significant bottlenecks experienced by most surveyed countries; (c) transparency and accountability standards deteriorated for COVID-19-related procurement relative to standard procurement; and (d) e-procurement, lessons from previous emergencies, and the quality of institutions are factors that enable national procurement systems to respond in a timely and effective manner to emergencies such as the COVID-19 crisis. Using these results, authors provide policy recommendations to guide countries to prepare and adapt their national procurement systems to respond to critical emergencies such as the COVID-19 crisis.
  • Publication
    Creating Disability-Inclusive ID System
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-11-17) World Bank
    Access to identification is a vital priority. In developing countries, persons with disabilities are among those most likely to face barriers in accessing government services such as health and rehabilitation, public transportation, education, voting, financial services, and economic opportunities. For women and girls with disabilities and other persons with disabilities with intersecting identities, these barriers are multidimensional. Addressing poverty among persons with disabilities and their families requires solutions that address their differentiated and sometimes complex needs, a precondition of which is possessing official proof of identity. This report provides a model of the continuous nature of the ID lifecycle, suggesting some illustrative approaches to designing a disability-inclusive ID process at any stage in the lifecycle. The ID lifecycle comprises five phases, each allowing for disability-inclusive interventions. The five phases are: (1) planning and design; (2) outreach and engagement; (3) enrollment; (4) use of ID; (5) and monitoring and evaluation. The cycle presents examples of continuous activities which should be regularly revisited to ensure that ID systems are accessible to people with disabilities regardless of the stage of implementation of the ID system. While not exhaustive, and recognizing that country contexts differ, this cyclical model can be a useful planning tool, much like that used across the world by electoral commissions for inclusive voter registration.
  • Publication
    Chatbots for Third-Party Monitoring: CivicTech Pilot in Madagascar
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-06) Rakotomalala, Olivia; Peixoto, Tiago; Kumagai, Saki
    Growing evidence confirms that citizen engagement is key to improving the delivery and quality of public services, management of public finances, and to promoting social inclusion, resulting in tangible improvements in people’s lives. The advent and availability of new technologies provide new opportunities to reach citizens, aggregate their ‘voice’ and demand, help governments respond, and partner with citizens to find and implement solutions collectively. With the right approach, CivicTech enables citizens to overcome income, social, and geographical barriers to interact with governments and participate at the local or national level. The CivicTech pilot in Madagascar supported the development of a Facebook ChatBot (bot) to enable third-party monitoring of service delivery operations for the Madagascar Public Sector Performance Project (PAPSP, P150116). A similar approach could be replicated for Community Driven Development (CDD) projects and local government and decentralized service delivery projects to achieve a multi-channel structure for third-party monitoring (offline, mobile, and web). The note documents the CivicTech pilot experience in Madagascar and lessons learned.
  • Publication
    Citizen Engagement in Operations: A Stock-Take of Citizen Engagement in Development Policy Financing
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-06) Kumagai, Saki
    Guided by the 2014 Strategic Framework for Mainstreaming Citizen Engagement in World Bank Group Operations, the World Bank supports policies, programs, projects, and advisory services and analytics where citizen engagement (CE) can improve development results. While the corporate commitment to mainstream CE targets investment operations, the World Bank teams continue to explore CE in other instruments. Engaging Citizens for Better Development Results, a report by the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), assessed the Bank Group’s efforts to mainstream CE. It recommends the World Bank “encourage and support efforts of its regional, country, and Global Practices teams to establish, where appropriate, thick CE that is regular and continuous, uses multiple tools, and is embedded in country systems.” It also suggests this objective could be achieved by more systematically using existing channels of dialogue and stakeholder engagement, including that of Development Policy Financing (DPF), and applying tools at the various levels. Given this context, this Governance Note aims to take stock of existing CE practice in DPF by shedding light on the prior action usage.
  • Publication
    Freedom of Information Access: Key Challenges, Lessons Learned and Strategies for Effective Implementation
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-06-01) World Bank
    Implementation of the right to information as established in a Freedom of Information Access (FOIA) Law provides a foundation for institutionalization of transparency and support for anti-corruption efforts. Passage of a FOIA law is only a first step toward accessibility of data and documents held by public agencies, however. Effective implementation of a FOIA requires that public agencies take additional steps to put laws into practice and overcome common implementation challenges that can render FOIA laws ineffective. This note, which builds on previous World Bank research on factors determining effective implementation of FOIA laws, reviews cases of introduction of FOIA laws around the world and summarizes the main challenges, lessons learned and key strategies emerging from these experiences. Its primary aim is to inform Italian public agencies charged with implementation of the FOIA law about steps they can take toward effective implementation. As such, it focuses on areas of activity typically within the purview of public agencies, as opposed to those typically in scope of policymakers or central agencies charged with implementation and/or legislative oversight of FOIA.
  • Publication
    Bangladesh Right To Information Survey 2019
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020) World Bank
    The year 2019 marks the tenth year of the Right to Information (RTI) act enactment in Bangladesh. The Government of Bangladesh (GoB) has made good progress in implementing the RTI Act 2009 in the past decade. The RTI survey was conducted between January and March of 2019. The survey results reveal that the contribution of the RIT Act 2009 has overall been positive in the last decade. Especially, notable progress has taken place in making the supply side prepared in implementing the RTI Act. The survey will enable policymakers and RTI activists to identify and seal the pores and bring about the desired changes in perception, behavior, and actions of various stakeholders, including the citizens.