Other Public Sector Study

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    The Evolving Role of the Planning Function: International Experience and Reform Options for India
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-11-01) World Bank
    This note presents the main trends in strategic planning across public sector administrations in seven countries: Australia, Canada, Brazil, Mexico, Malaysia, South Korea, and Colombia. It was prepared in response to the Indian Government's interest in understanding the emerging trends in the evolution of strategic planning in a range of countries and effectively adapting this function across public administration at the national and subnational levels.
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    Opportunities and Challenges for Public Procurement in the First Months of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Results From an Experts Survey
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-19) World Bank
    The COVID-19 pandemic created unprecedented circumstances and challenges in many dimensions, without clear ex ante directions and guidance on the best strategies for coping with the emergency, including in public procurement. As a result, especially in the first months of the pandemic, governments responded to the COVID-19 crisis in myriad ways. To rationalize and take stock of these diverse experiences and challenges, the World Bank’s Procurement and Standards Global Unit and Development Impact Evaluation (DIME) unit conducted an International Survey of Procurement Specialists and Experts to document the legal and administrative framework for national emergency public procurement in the first months after the global COVID-19 outbreak. The survey was implemented between May and August 2020 and received 136 contributions covering 103 countries. The authors find that (a) some countries relied more heavily on high-risk procedures than on the procedures considered critical for effective and efficient emergency procurement; (b) lack of clarity on procurement needs and lack of coordination were significant bottlenecks experienced by most surveyed countries; (c) transparency and accountability standards deteriorated for COVID-19-related procurement relative to standard procurement; and (d) e-procurement, lessons from previous emergencies, and the quality of institutions are factors that enable national procurement systems to respond in a timely and effective manner to emergencies such as the COVID-19 crisis. Using these results, authors provide policy recommendations to guide countries to prepare and adapt their national procurement systems to respond to critical emergencies such as the COVID-19 crisis.
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    Creating Disability-Inclusive ID System
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-11-17) World Bank
    Access to identification is a vital priority. In developing countries, persons with disabilities are among those most likely to face barriers in accessing government services such as health and rehabilitation, public transportation, education, voting, financial services, and economic opportunities. For women and girls with disabilities and other persons with disabilities with intersecting identities, these barriers are multidimensional. Addressing poverty among persons with disabilities and their families requires solutions that address their differentiated and sometimes complex needs, a precondition of which is possessing official proof of identity. This report provides a model of the continuous nature of the ID lifecycle, suggesting some illustrative approaches to designing a disability-inclusive ID process at any stage in the lifecycle. The ID lifecycle comprises five phases, each allowing for disability-inclusive interventions. The five phases are: (1) planning and design; (2) outreach and engagement; (3) enrollment; (4) use of ID; (5) and monitoring and evaluation. The cycle presents examples of continuous activities which should be regularly revisited to ensure that ID systems are accessible to people with disabilities regardless of the stage of implementation of the ID system. While not exhaustive, and recognizing that country contexts differ, this cyclical model can be a useful planning tool, much like that used across the world by electoral commissions for inclusive voter registration.
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    Freedom of Information Access: Key Challenges, Lessons Learned and Strategies for Effective Implementation
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-06-01) World Bank
    Implementation of the right to information as established in a Freedom of Information Access (FOIA) Law provides a foundation for institutionalization of transparency and support for anti-corruption efforts. Passage of a FOIA law is only a first step toward accessibility of data and documents held by public agencies, however. Effective implementation of a FOIA requires that public agencies take additional steps to put laws into practice and overcome common implementation challenges that can render FOIA laws ineffective. This note, which builds on previous World Bank research on factors determining effective implementation of FOIA laws, reviews cases of introduction of FOIA laws around the world and summarizes the main challenges, lessons learned and key strategies emerging from these experiences. Its primary aim is to inform Italian public agencies charged with implementation of the FOIA law about steps they can take toward effective implementation. As such, it focuses on areas of activity typically within the purview of public agencies, as opposed to those typically in scope of policymakers or central agencies charged with implementation and/or legislative oversight of FOIA.
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    Bangladesh Right To Information Survey 2019
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020) World Bank
    The year 2019 marks the tenth year of the Right to Information (RTI) act enactment in Bangladesh. The Government of Bangladesh (GoB) has made good progress in implementing the RTI Act 2009 in the past decade. The RTI survey was conducted between January and March of 2019. The survey results reveal that the contribution of the RIT Act 2009 has overall been positive in the last decade. Especially, notable progress has taken place in making the supply side prepared in implementing the RTI Act. The survey will enable policymakers and RTI activists to identify and seal the pores and bring about the desired changes in perception, behavior, and actions of various stakeholders, including the citizens.
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    Republic of Azerbaijan: Corporate Governance and Ownership of State Owned Enterprises
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-11) World Bank
    This Technical Note assesses the corporate governance of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) in Azerbaijan with a view to supporting the government’s efforts to bolster economic development. Mutually reinforcing recommendations are closely linked and aim to increase accountability across the whole ownership structure of SOEs, from their ultimate owners, the citizens, to their employees. The Note outlines international good practice, summarizes current practices in Azerbaijan, and indicates areas for consideration to improve SOE corporate governance in Azerbaijan. The Note was prepared by a World Bank Group team, based on research and consultations during January - October 2017, to (i) analyze current SOE governance frameworks and practices in Azerbaijan and identify main deviations from international good practices; and (ii) develop a series of policy recommendations for further reforms in strengthening SOEs governance and improving their effectiveness. This work may serve as a basis for further collaboration between the World Bank and the Government of Azerbaijan towards SOE reform and related policy considerations. Given the significance of SOEs and a range of important socio-economic and political-economy related factors, improving SOEs governance in Azerbaijan is a significant challenge. Implementation of any of the recommendations contained in this Note should form part of a broader strategy for SOEs linked to economic and sector strategies in Azerbaijan. This Note aims to build on the priorities outlined by the Strategic Roadmaps for the national economy and main economic sectors of Azerbaijan for 2016-2020, signed by the President of Azerbaijan on December 6, 2016. The Roadmaps re-affirm Azerbaijan’s priorities in diversification of its oil-dominant economy, reduce the State’s participation in the existing state-owned enterprises, and enable more private sector led growth.
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    Strengthening the Citizen-State Compact through Feedback: Effective Complaint Management as a Pathway to Articulate Citizen Voice and Improve State Response
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-06-21) World Bank
    The Palestinian Authority is committed to improving state-citizen relations through various mechanisms including the complaints resolution. The objective of this technical assistance, which has been undertaken at the request of the DGC, is to strengthen the Complaint Handling Mechanisms (CHMs) in five Palestinian ministries/government entities that are supported by World Bank-financed projects, as well as the DGC. This summary report synthesizes key findings that have emerged throughout the technical assistance and formulates Ministry-specific recommendations. It forms the basis of a possible phase II of the project, which would support the implementation of recommendations. The report presents the innovative methodology used to bring together the demand- and supply-side perspectives on CHMs in targeted ministries; the key findings from the survey and the ministry-by-ministry assessments; the key suggestions for improvement; and finally the next steps. The technical assistance has generated high client interest among the concerned Ministries, the DGC and development partners.The technical assistance has generated high client interest among the concerned Ministries, the DGC and development partners. This summary report synthesizes key findings that have emerged throughout the technical assistance and formulates Ministry-specific recommendations. It forms the basis of a possible phase II of the project which would support the implementation of recommendations. The technical assistance also aligns with the focus on strengthening the citizen-state compact specified in the WBG Assistance Strategy FY15-16 for the West Bank and Gaza. The report is structured as follows: Part two presents the context; Part three presents the methodology used to bring together the demand- and supply-side perspectives on CHMs in targeted ministries; Part four presents the key findings from the survey and the ministry-by-ministry assessments; Part five presents the key suggestions for improvement; and finally Part six presents the next steps.
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    Republic of Serbia Municipal Public Finance Review : Options for Efficiency Gains
    (Washington, DC, 2014-06-05) World Bank
    Since the global financial crisis, Serbia's public debt has more than doubled. Local Governments (LGs) need to find ways to perform more efficiently, not only to contribute to national fiscal consolidation efforts, but also because they may have fewer resources available in the future. This report represents a continuation of the World Bank effort to explore LGs finances. The first phase of this report focused on options for increases in local revenues; impact of further decentralization; options for reduction of subsidies in selected sectors; and how to control the public debt. The report is organized as follows. Chapter 2 examines LG hiring and pay policies. In addition to offering recommendations on how to achieve efficiency and savings, it sheds light on employment wage policies within LG enterprises. Chapter 3 deepens the analysis of local public utility companies (PUCs), which not only have significant responsibilities for delivering local services, but also often pose a significant pressure on LG budgets. On average, financial support to PUCs accounts for a quarter of local budgets. This chapter looks at the main issues and makes recommendations for efficiency gains. Chapter 4 discusses the most important public financial management issues for LGs, asking where better management and accountability could increase value-for-money and help extract additional benefits from current and capital expenditures. It examines budget preparation, execution, and reporting issues as a basis for recommending policies to increase transparency and accountability as well as more efficient use of resources. Chapter 5 summarizes the main conclusions and policy recommendations of the report.
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    Republic of India - eGovernance in the North East : Reducing Public Administration Constraints to Improve Service Delivery
    (Washington, DC, 2014-06-02) World Bank
    The Government of Assam (GoA) is engaged in a process of improving services to citizens. The focus on better services to citizens is in line with the National e-Government Plan (NeGP), with a number of existing and anticipated Union Acts, and with recently passed acts in Assam, especially the Assam Right to Public Services Act of 2012. The GoA is fully aware that progress on service delivery will require attention to both vertical and horizontal connectivity, and it intends to develop a Strategic Action Plan which focuses on these critical elements. The policy dialogue with the Government of Assam and review of relevant documents reveal general agreement on main public administration constraints (PAC's) to service delivery. The current report proposes a gradual reform approach, with a focus on searching for improvements that can be accomplished with a reasonable effort. The present report is structured as follows. Chapter two, 'Public Administration Constraints (PAC's)', provides a detailed diagnostic of constraints identified in Assam, groups those under five headings, and proposes actions to address each of the constraints. Chapter three, 'the way forward' proposes a process leading to the preparation and adoption by the Government of Assam of a strategic action plan to address to address selected PAC's.
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    Local Service Delivery in Nepal
    (Washington, DC, 2014-06) World Bank
    The effectiveness of public service delivery depends in large part on the capability, resources and inputs, and the motivation of frontline service providers at the local level. In Nepal a combination of de-concentrated line agencies and local bodies at the district, municipal, and village level provides inputs which are translated into delivery of service outputs and outcomes. Yet the relationships between line agencies and local bodies in service delivery are not well understood. The purpose of this report is to examine in detail the current dynamics of frontline service delivery to identify institutional limitations and present approaches to addressing them. This study seeks to map out the dynamics of service delivery at the local level through analysis of the institutional framework and actual practices in service delivery in 14 jurisdictions in the two districts of Dhankuta and Dhanusa. The study includes a detailed review of the provision of local roads networks and primary and lower secondary education. In this context, the report is divided into four parts: part one gives introduction; part two presents institutional framework for local service delivery; part three focuses on sub-national service delivery: local roads and primary education; and part four presents conclusions and recommendations to improve frontline service delivery.