Other Public Sector Study

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    Toward More People-Centered Service Delivery: Opportunities for the National ID System in Lesotho
    (Washington, DC, 2022-05) World Bank
    This note documents the current and emerging use cases for the national ID (NID) system in the Kingdom of Lesotho. It demonstrates considerable potential and progress to date, and makes recommendations for moving toward a more inclusive, trusted and service delivery-oriented NID system. Global experience has shown that national ID systems can promote more efficient, transparent and people-centered service delivery in the public and private sectors, particularly when the system is designed with the appropriate enablers and safeguards in place to support improved development outcomes and mitigate risks. As countries move toward digital economies and governance, ID systems often serve as an essential digital platform, underpinning the digital payment infrastructure and transactions, as well as the provision of online and offline government services.
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    The World Bank's Support for Subnational Governance in Large Federal Countries: Lessons Learned from Argentina, Brazil and Nigeria
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022) Stoykov, Petar Georgiev ; Yilmaz, Serdar
    Limited local tax revenue and low public sector efficiency are two critical problems of public sector management and key constraints for the economic and social development of many subnational governments in large federal countries. To create fiscal space without compromising macroeconomic stability and fiscal sustainability, there is a need for reforms that lead to better use of public resources and improved expenditure efficiency through reforms in budgeting, procurement, and tax administration. This note presents lessons learned from the World Bank’s subnational governance projects in three large federal countries - Argentina, Brazil and Nigeria - between 2008-2017. These lessons learned can be useful in shaping the design of future subnational governance projects in other federal countries, particularly those projects seeking to improve service delivery, public expenditure systems and core governance institutions.
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    Strategic Communications for Identification Systems: Guidance Note
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022) World Bank
    This guidance note unpacks how strategic communications can enhance the design, implementation, and delivery of identification (ID) systems that are inclusive and trusted. When leveraged holistically, strategic communications can help governments engage effectively with relevant actors throughout the lifecycle of an ID system, including stakeholders on the supply side of ID administration, such as government and private sector implementing entities, and those on the demand side, namely the people that an ID system is intended to serve. Effective communication with relevant actors sows the seeds for public awareness about an ID system, which ultimately helps boost engagement through increased access, both of which are fundamental to achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Target 16.9 on the provision of legal identity for all. This note builds on best practices for communications outlined in the ID4D Practitioner’s Guide to offer governments and ID system practitioners a more in-depth perspective on how to craft an effective strategy and implementation framework. In doing so, the guide highlights essential components for a communications strategy; spotlights cross-country campaigns specific to ID systems and beyond to demonstrate the breadth of potential approaches; and provides practical tools, such as terms of references and a measurement framework, that can support practitioners as they transform ideas into action.
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    Brazil : The SOL-ution for Smart Community Procurement: Simple, Efficient, and Transparent Government Systems
    (Washington, DC : World Bank, 2022) World Bank
    SOL is the Portuguese acronym for Online Bidding Solution (Solução Online de Licitação). SOL is a GovTech solution for community-level procurements carried out under community-driven development (CDD) projects, and it addresses the procurement challenges that the communities usually face. Piloting SOL in selected projects in Brazil showed the app’s potential to increase the efficiency, transparency, and governance of the procurement process. The app facilitates the connection between community associations and their suppliers and automates the full procurement process. In addition, as all procurement data is generated and safely stored in the app, the app enhances the audit capacity of governments and the World Bank. Given the many positive results, SOL is to be upgraded with new features and translated into other languages to facilitate scale-up and use by other countries, including in Latin America and the Caribbean.
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    ID4D Global Dataset 2021, Volume 1: Global ID Coverage Estimates
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022) Clark, Julia ; Metz, Anna ; Casher, Claire
    This paper aims to estimate the number of people globally who do—and do not—have government-recognized proof of identity (“ID”). This work is an update to the most recent estimate produced in 2018, which found that just under 1 billion people did not have an ID. The World Bank’s Identification for Development (ID4D) Initiative collected new data for this analysis: two rounds of survey-based data on ID ownership for adults (in partnership with the Global Findex Survey), as well as new administrative data acquired through outreach to ID authorities. By incorporating this data with the data sources used in 2018 and updating the methodology accordingly, we find that as of 2021 there are just under 850 million people globally without official proof of their identity. Around half are children, and the vast majority live in lower-income countries in Africa and South Asia. Analysis using individual-level survey data demonstrates that these 850 million are at a high risk of exclusion from basic services and economic opportunities and are among the most marginalized in their communities. Bridging this ID ownership gap is thus critical for ending extreme poverty, promoting shared prosperity, and realizing the global commitment to “Leave No One Behind.”
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    Federated Ecosystems for Digital ID: Current Approaches and Lessons
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022) World Bank
    The focus of this paper is on federations that provide digital ID credentials and services recognized by governments for official purposes, in other words, accessing government services, and may also be accepted or required for certain services in the private sector that require higher levels of assurance—for example, the opening of a bank account. Other forms of digital ID and federation provided and used only by private sector entities—such as using Facebook, Amazon, or Google accounts to log-in to other websites or services on the internet via federation protocols—are not considered here.
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    Public Sector Employment and Compensation: An Assessment Framework
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-12-21) World Bank
    This paper aims to provide a framework for conducting public sector employment and compensation assessments that can help develop evidence-based reforms. Such a framework is necessary given growing debt distress and the need for greater expenditure efficiency in many of the World Bank’s client countries, and also due to the urgency for addressing global challenges like pandemics, climate change, building human capital, and reducing inequality, all of which require a strong role for the public sector.
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    Ethics and Corruption in the Federal Public Service: Civil Servants' Perspectives
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-12-09) World Bank
    This Survey on Ethics and Corruption in the Federal Public Service was held online from April 28 to May 28, 2021, in partnership with the Office of the Federal Comptroller General (CGU), the Ministry of the Economy, and the National School of Public Administration (ENAP). All civil servants were represented in the sample, totaling 22,130 respondents. The sample covered all federative units and ministries. Most civil servants report having witnessed some sort of unethical practice during their time in the public sector. Of all respondents, 58.7 percent stated that they witnessed some unethical practice during their career in public service. The most frequent practices were using one's position to help friends or family and bending the rules under pressure from one’s superiors. Over the past three years, around one third of all civil servants (33.4 percent) witnessed some unethical practice, according to their reports. Corruption in the public service is multifaceted, thus requiring granular information about its nature, prevalence, and vulnerable actors. In view of its scope, thematic scope, and representativeness, the data generated by the study could become a valuable source for the development of knowledge about corruption in the federal public service. We hope that this Survey on Ethics and Corruption in the Federal Public Service becomes a tool to complement current and future efforts to fight corruption.
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    The Evolving Role of the Planning Function: International Experience and Reform Options for India
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-11-01) World Bank
    This note presents the main trends in strategic planning across public sector administrations in seven countries: Australia, Canada, Brazil, Mexico, Malaysia, South Korea, and Colombia. It was prepared in response to the Indian Government's interest in understanding the emerging trends in the evolution of strategic planning in a range of countries and effectively adapting this function across public administration at the national and subnational levels.
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    ID4D Country Diagnostic: Central African Republic
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-10-19) World Bank
    This diagnostic has been conducted with the sole purpose of serving the ongoing development of social protection policy in the country. It is the Bank’s hope that the report will be useful for social protection policy development as intended. The Bank has not agreed with the government to invest in the civil registration and identification sector. The government may consider the use of this report for the activities it will undertake to seek support from the international donor community for such an investment. The report is organized into the following sections: section one gives introduction. Section two examines the identity ecosystem in Central African Republic (CAR) and presents the stakeholders on the supply and demand sides, the identity schemes, the legal framework, and the specific post-crisis identity context; and section three presents the analysis conducted by the World Bank Group and details the main recommendations to build on so social protection actors can promote an efficient and reliable identity ecosystem that can serve the entire Central African population, starting from the most vulnerable.