Other Financial Accountability Study

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  • Publication
    Complaints Handling within Financial Service Providers: Principles, Practices, and Regulatory Approaches
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-06) World Bank
    Core to an effective financial consumer protection framework is an accessible and efficient recourse mechanism that allows consumers both to know and to assert their rights to have their complaints addressed and resolved in a transparent and just way within a reasonable timeframe. Complaints handling mechanisms are especially important for low-income and vulnerable financial consumers, to whom timely and effective recourse processes can have a decisive influence over their trust in their financial service provider (FSP) and in the financial sector in general. Increased trust contributes to consumers' uptake and sustained usage of financial services and, consequently, their economic livelihoods. Financial consumer complaints handling mechanisms comprise two stages: complaints that are handled by FSPs, generally referred to as internal dispute resolution (IDR); and complaints that, if not satisfactorily resolved, are handled by an alternative, out-of-court process, generally referred to as external dispute resolution (EDR). There are several international sources of principles applicable to complaints handling and resolution processes and procedures to be established by FSPs. Drawing from the World Bank's Good Practices for Financial Consumer Protection, the work of international bodies, such as the Group of Twenty (G20)/Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Task Force on Financial Consumer Protection, as well as selected country experiences this Technical Note highlights considerations that aim to provide a methodological guidance for regulators and FSPs when developing and implementing IDR frameworks to ensure they are consistent with international good practices. This Technical Note synthesizes concepts, principles, and practices for IDR mechanisms for financial consumers and shares examples of legal and regulatory requirements for FSPs to resolve complaints and to ensure that complaints- related data is collected, analyzed, and shared as appropriate to support improvements in FSP performance, industry market conduct, and market conduct regulation.
  • Publication
    Papua New Guinea Financial Consumer Protection Diagnostic 2018
    (International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC, 2018-10-01) International Finance Corporation; World Bank
    The objective of the diagnostic review of financial consumer protection in PNG was to assess the FCP legal and regulatory framework and industry practices relevant to key parts of the regulated PNG financial sector. The diagnostic specifically considers the banking, non-bank financial institutions (NBFI), insurance, and payments sectors. Preliminary consideration has also been given to the superannuation sector and the securities, investments and informal sectors are not within the scope of this review. The review was conducted based on the revised and enhanced 2017 World Bank Good Practices for Financial Consumer Protection and the G20 High – Level Principles on Financial Consumer Protection and Digital Financial Inclusion. Regard has also been had to the Better Than Cash Alliance Responsible Digital Payments Guidelines. The following topics have been covered: (i) legal and regulatory framework; (ii) FCP supervision and capacity; (iii) transparency and fair treatment; and (iv) consumer complaints. A broad variety of stakeholders were consulted for the purposes of this diagnostic review, including government entities and regulators, representatives of the banking, NBFI, insurance and payments sectors and industry associations. The report was prepared as part of the PNG Financial Consumer Protection Project, funded by the Department of Foreign Affairs in Australia and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in New Zealand under the PNG Partnership.
  • Publication
    Global Financial Inclusion and Consumer Protection Survey, 2017 Report
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-12-15) World Bank Group
    Financial sector authorities increasingly prioritize financial inclusion and financial consumer protection, alongside existing priorities of stability and integrity. An enabling environment that facilitates competition, promotes innovation and the use of technology, addresses risks in a proportionate manner, and empowers financial consumers to make informed choices is critical to improving financial inclusion and consumer protection. The 2017 Global Financial Inclusion and Consumer Protection (FICP) Survey tracks the prevalence of key policy, legal, regulatory, and supervisory approaches to advancing financial inclusion and consumer protection. The 2017 Global FICP Survey covers key topics related to the enabling environment for financial inclusion and financial consumer protection, including national financial inclusion strategies, the issuance of e-money by nonbanks, agent-based delivery models, simplified customer due diligence, institutional arrangements for financial consumer protection, disclosure, dispute resolution, and financial capability. The 2017 Global FICP Survey covers regulated retail institutions that provide standard loan, deposit, or payment services. Financial sector authorities in 124 jurisdictions – representing 141 economies and more than 90 percent of the world’s unbanked adult population – responded to the 2017 Global FICP Survey. This report presents main findings from an analysis of those responses.
  • Publication
    Good Practices for Financial Consumer Protection, 2017 Edition
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-12-12) World Bank Group
    Over the past decade, financial consumer protection has become an increasingly mainstream priority for policymakers. A strong consumer protection regime is key to ensuring that expanded access to financial services benefits consumers, enabling them to make well-informed decisions on how best to use financial services, building trust in the formal financial sector, and contributing to healthy and competitive financial markets. The World Bank’s Good Practices for Financial Consumer Protection (the Good Practices) was developed in 2012 as a contribution to the emerging global set of tools on financial consumer protection. Since then, international guidance and country practices regarding financial consumer protection have substantially evolved. The 2017 Good Practices is designed to serve as a comprehensive reference and assessment tool for policymakers that consolidates the latest research, international guidance, and country examples. A thorough update of the previous edition, this guide expands upon priority areas such as supervisory techniques, effective disclosure, and digital finance, and also emphasizes the practical considerations and tradeoffs that policymakers face when implementing new policies and practices.
  • Publication
    Federal Republic of Nigeria Diagnostic Review of Financial Consumer Protection: Key Findings and Recommendations
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-06) World Bank Group
    While only 44 percent of adults in Nigeria have an account at a formal financial institution, and only 2.5 percent have a mobile account, there are rapid innovations in both traditional and digital financial services that promote financial inclusion but also add complexity and risks for inexperienced consumers. Strengthening financial consumer protection (FCP) in Nigeria is therefore critical to ensure responsible and sustainable financial inclusion. This Diagnostic Review was conducted under the joint World Bank and IMF program to strengthen Nigeria's financial sector. The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) has already established a dedicated Consumer Protection Department and developed a high-level FCP Framework, however there are many areas for improvement. The Review analyzes the FCP regime in Nigeria's banking, non-bank financial institution (NBFI) and payment sectors, and offers tailored recommendations. Based on the 2017 World Bank Good Practices for Financial Consumer Protection, this assessment covers five topics in each of the abovementioned sectors: i) legal, regulatory, and supervisory framework; ii) disclosure and sales practices; iii) fair treatment and business conduct; iv) data privacy; and v) dispute resolution mechanisms. The Review summarizes the key findings and recommendations and then discusses them in detail.
  • Publication
    Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Diagnostic Review of Financial Consumer Protection
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-04) World Bank Group
    The objective of the Diagnostic Review of Financial Consumer Protection in Ethiopia is to assess the legal, regulatory, and institutional framework for financial consumer protection (FCP) and develop prioritized and tailored recommendations aimed at supporting the National Bank of Ethiopia (NBE) in developing and operationalizing improvements to that framework. The assessment is conducted under the Ethiopia Financial Inclusion Support Framework (FISF) Program, and based on the revised and enhanced 2017 Edition of the World Bank Good Practices for Financial Consumer Protection with focus on retail products and services in four sectors: i) banks and non-bank financial institutions (NBFIs); ii) payments; and iii) insurance. Further, the review covers five topics in each of the above-mentioned sectors: i) legal, regulatory, and supervisory framework; ii) disclosure and sales practices; iii) fair treatment and business conduct; iv) data privacy; and v) dispute resolution mechanisms. The report reflects the existing legal, regulatory, and institutional framework in Ethiopia, with references to planned reforms that were presented to or discussed with the World Bank team. It also features industry practices identified through interviews with financial services providers, financial regulators, and consumer and industry associations.
  • Publication
    Republic of Ghana Diagnostic Review of Financial Consumer Protection
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-06) World Bank Group
    This diagnostic review was conducted with a purpose to inform future reform of the FCP framework in Ghana, and is based on the revised and enhanced World Bank Good Practices for Financial Consumer Protection (forthcoming). The content of this report is based on a review of the legal and regulatory framework, as well as in anecdotal evidence of current FCP issues and practices gathered through interviews with financial services providers, regulators, specialists, and through a review of available documents on this topic. The assessment focuses on retail products and services in four sectors: i) banks and NBFIs; given the large number of diverse institutions in the non-bank sector the references to NBFI sector in this report are primarily based on information gathered from rural and community banks, microfinance companies, savings and loans, credit unions, and leasing companies; ii) payments; and iii) insurance. Further, it covers five topics in each of the above-mentioned sectors, namely: i) legal, regulatory, and supervisory framework; ii) disclosure and sales practices; iii) fair treatment and business conduct; iv) data privacy; and v) dispute resolution mechanisms. While some sector-specific sections addressed issues related to data privacy, this topic was primarily addressed as cross-sectoral issue, discussed in section 2 below. Each of the sections contains recommendations for reform measures in Ghana, with indication of their priority. Significant emphasis has been put on building supervisory capacity for FCP, given its importance for effective implementation of the few existing regulations and additional regulatory reforms proposed in this report.
  • Publication
    Fiduciary Systems Assessment : Maharashtra Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Program
    (Washington, DC, 2014-02) World Bank
    A fiduciary systems assessment (FSA) was carried out to evaluate the arrangements relevant to the program and to determine whether they provide reasonable assurance that the program funds will be used for their intended purpose. Taking into account the improvements required and the agreement on the actions required to strengthen the systems (which are reflected in the program action plan (PAP), the overall fiduciary framework is considered adequate to support program management and to achieve desired results. Government of Maharashtra (GoM) has a well-developed budgetary framework that ensures allocation of adequate resources to all departments and programs. There is sufficient predictability in the availability of resources; however, to maintain transparency in GoM's financing, an exclusive budget line has been allocated to this program as is usually done by GoM for externally aided projects. Fiduciary arrangements in the sector are guided by several rules and legislations, including the state financial rules, public works department (PWD) manual, store purchase rules, Maharashtra jeevan pradhikaran (MJP) act, Zila Parishad (ZP) account code and the Bombay panchayat rules. The existing governance and accountability arrangements in water supply and sanitation department (WSSD) include the anti-corruption bureau, which enforces the prevention of corruption act, 1988; audits by the comptroller and auditor general (C and AG) of India, the country's premier auditor; right to information (RTI) act 2005; and WSSD's vigilance function and its grievance redress system (E-Pani).
  • Publication
    Mongolia Diagnostic Review of Consumer Protection and Financial Literacy: Volume 2. Comparison with Good Practices
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-12) World Bank
    The Mongolian economy has grown very rapidly following the discovery of significant mineral deposits. Large investments in the mining sector have led to increased capital inflows, resulting in cheap external funding for banks and rapid credit expansion. Loans to households increased at the staggering pace of 80 percent from 2010 to 2011, despite Mongolia’s history of banking crises. Loans to Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have increased by some 65 percent in the same year. Although over 78 percent of adult Mongolians have accounts at formal financial institutions and over 61 percent have debit cards - far exceeding the average in the East Asia and Pacific region - in many respects the legal and regulatory framework and enforcement have not kept pace with the expansion of lending. Some important segments of the financial sector, such as securities and insurance, are still lagging due to low consumer awareness and low levels of savings. A number of reforms have been introduced to expand the financial services market but it is clear that consumer protection and financial literacy need to be addressed in a more systematic way. This World Bank’s diagnostic review provides a detailed assessment of the institutional, legal, and regulatory framework in three segments of the financial sector: banking, securities, and insurance. Volume I summarizes the key findings and recommendations of the review and Volume II presents a detailed assessment of each financial segment compared to the Good Practices for Financial Consumer Protection.
  • Publication
    Ukraine Strategy for Financial Services Consumer Protection and Financial Literacy (2012-17): Diagnostic Review and Action Plan, Volume 1. Main Findings and Recommendations
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-04) World Bank
    Eight years of strong economic growth in Ukraine in 2000-2008, at an average of seven percent per year, ended with a sharp 15 percent decline in 2009. The national currency plummeted and the banking sector nearly collapsed, with non-performing loans increasing from 2.3 percent to 11.2 percent of total loans in 2008-2010. According to the 2010 USAID/FINREP financial literacy survey, 39 percent of adult Ukrainians are still unbanked and nearly half prefer holding savings in cash. Only 15 percent of consumers trust banks and just 6 percent trust investment funds or private pension funds. Only 17 percent believe in a fair resolution in a dispute with a financial institution. The Ukrainian authorities recognize that the financial system needs to be made more resilient to future crises and thus requires a substantial redesign of the legal and regulatory framework of consumer protection and market conduct in financial services. This World Bank's diagnostic review aims to help Ukraine design a 5-year strategy to strengthen financial consumer protection and financial education as the fundamentals for sustainable growth and deepening of the financial sector. The review is presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the main findings and recommendations of the review, and Volume II provides a detailed assessment of Ukraine's compliance with the international best practices summarized in the World Bank's Good Practices for Financial Consumer Protection.