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PublicationEquity for Sustained Growth: Pernambuco State Equity Assessment(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-06-04) Lopez-Calva, Luis F.; Rodella, Aude-SophieStarting from the aggregate, this report first describes how Pernambuco has fared with respect to the rest of Brazil, both in terms of economic and social welfare performance, over the last decade (2001-2012). In a context of widespread economic growth, Pernambuco has done particularly well in recent years, similar to or above the national average. A key challenge concerns the longer-term, where – notwithstanding the positive performance of recent years-the same level of growth may not be as easily sustained. The solid economic performance has been reflected in an improvement of social indicators, also associated with the governments interiorizacao strategy, a policy developed explicitly to increase the coverage of public services in underserved areas, with a focus on the interior of the state. The decline in poverty rates displays a trajectory towards convergence with Brazil and recently, a faster than national decline of the Gini has brought Pernambucos income inequality below the national and Northeast level. PublicationBrazil - Growth and Poverty Reduction in Rio Gande Do Norte: A State Economic Memorandum(Washington DC, 2004-01-16) World BankBrazil was the fastest growing country in the world between 1930 and 1995, with an average annual growth rate of 6.1 percent. By 2000, Brazil's per-capita income stood at R$6,500. While RN's per capita income is slightly above half the national average, it increased from 43 percent of the national average in 1947 to 47 percent in 1998, implying that RN's economy grew faster than that of Brazil for over half a century. This has also been true in recent years. Between 1990-1998, RN's income per capita showed a respectable trend growth rate of 3.0 percent. The close relationship between Brazil's economic growth and RN's economic progress in the last five decades reflects a response to common macroeconomic forces and external environment as well as the enormous influence of national policies and programs on RN's economy. However, the state can also implement policies and programs to stimulate growth and employment. For this purpose, an understanding of trends in state GDP and employment and of the sources of growth is important. RN's economy has undergone a rapid and welcome transformation from one dependent on salt, cotton, sugar, and cattle to one dominated by services. The service sector has increased its share of GDP from 40 percent in 1985 to 59 percent in 1998. Over this period, the share of industry declined from 50 to 34 percent and the share of agriculture fell from 9 to 7 percent, though its share of total employment remains relatively high at 18 percent, reflecting lower productivity of agricultural workers. The shares of services and industry in total employment are 53 and 29 percent, respectively. PublicationBrazil : Stability for Growth and Poverty Reduction(Washington, DC, 2003-01-31) World BankThe importance of macroeconomic stability for growth, and poverty reduction is now accepted in Brazil. As of 1964, the country followed responsible macroeconomic policies, in the pursuit of stability, reconfirmed by the new Government in January 2003. The report focuses strictly on three key macroeconomic issues, critical to assure stability, avoid crises, and hence allow poverty reduction on a sustainable basis. Though much has been achieved, stability, and higher growth in Brazil now depend on reforms along three main axes: Structural fiscal reforms, to allow flexible public spending towards a higher primary surplus; moving towards a different public debt composition; and, ensuring an external adjustment, sustainable and in tandem with higher growth. The report argues for reducing volatility, and uncertainty to achieve sustainable growth, and poverty reduction, and, based on its analysis, it further argues for a debt management strategy that includes gradual lengthening of maturity, and duration of debt; indexing more debt to prices, and reducing indexation to policy interest rates, or the exchange rate; issuing fixed-coupon instruments; and, making judicious use of alternative financial instruments, in addition to coordinating monetary policy, and public debt management, so that reserve requirements may be lowered, leading to more efficient cash markets.