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Lake Chad Regional Economic Memorandum: Technical Paper 4. Infrastructure and Structural Change in the Lake Chad Region(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-11-09) Lebrand, MathildThis paper focuses on the impact of infrastructure on economic development for the countries around the Lake Chad area, an economically- and socially-integrated area in north-west Africa that has development potential, but which has been undermined by multiple and interrelated drivers of fragility, conflict, and violence. The Lake Chad region comprises a set of administrative areas across Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria that surround Lake Chad, with an estimated 17 million to 19 million people, who are primarily involved in agriculture and fishing activities. The region has one of the largest concentrations of extreme poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa and the world and lags in human development outcomes and access to key public services. The paper analyzes the impact of infrastructure in Cameroon, Chad and Nigeria, from a national and regional perspective, and with a particular focus on the Lake Chad area. The paper is structured as follows. Section two presents the data. Section three presents the empirical strategy and results. Section four develops a spatial general-equilibrium model to produce counterfactuals for more regional integration. Section five concludes.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-06-21) Kunaka, Charles ; Derudder, BenThis background paper systematically maps and assesses the connectivity of cities in the Horn of Africa (HoA) and uses the results to proposes a number of policy perspectives on how to strategically boost connectivity in different parts of the region. Analytically, this is achieved through network analysis of the directness, the diversity, topology and the density of HoA cities’ transport infrastructure connections. Crucially, network analysis allows proxying HoA cities’ potential to participate in value chains at various geographical scales and identifying key areas of possible intervention. Results can guide institutional and governance measures that can be taken to influence connectivity as a whole and for specific cities and transport corridors in particular. The output can thus help determine the interventions that are needed to tackle bottlenecks in corridors, addressing infrastructure, policy and regulatory constraints. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 outlines the rationale for an analysis of inter-urban connectivity in general and its linkages with the broader topic of regional integration and the economic geographies of the HoA in particular. Section 3 discusses our analytical framework, while Section 4 discusses the results. The paper is concluded with a discussion of key policy perspectives in section 5.
Publication(Washington, DC, 2021) World BankImproving Kosovo’s export competitiveness can help to catalyze growth and reduce poverty. As a small economy, Kosovo will benefit from integration, both globally and regionally, to exploit scale economies from access to a larger market. Higher exports will not only contribute to growth and lower current account deficits but can also help heighten productivity due to more innovation and learning by exporting. Exporting firms, which are more competitive, will also be able to create better jobs and economic opportunities for Kosovars. This background note examines export dynamics in Kosovo over the period 2010-19, benchmarking Kosovo against relevant comparator countries. It overviews Kosovo’s trade structure, export dynamics at the firm level, trade policy and regulatory framework, and constraints to trade in goods and services and identifies policy options for consolidating trade growth in growing sectors. The note also spotlights digitalization and digital trade. It analyzes the enabling environment and suggests policies to enhance digital connectivity, improve the regulatory environment for digital trade, and encourage the use of e-payments.