Country Economic Memorandum

235 items available

Permanent URI for this collection

Items in this collection

Now showing 1 - 10 of 72
  • Thumbnail Image
    Publication
    Timor-Leste: Pathways to Economic Diversification - Country Economic Memorandum 2023
    (Washington DC, 2023-05-03) World Bank
    Timor-Leste has made important development gains since independence in 2002 but is now at a critical juncture. The government has successfully rebuilt public infrastructure, reduced poverty, and quickly built from scratch a network of functional public institutions. Despite these achievements, there is an urgent need for private sector-centered development that is not dependent on the oil sector. Receipts from sales of hydrocarbons have been the main source of government revenues, but their contribution to the economy is decreasing, raising the urgency for economic diversification. High public spending has not translated into strong and sustained economic growth. Furthermore, depleting oil reserves signal an urgency to reduce economic dependence on oil. The public sector-driven growth model has run its course and is fiscally unsustainable. The excessive public spending level led to an astronomical fiscal deficit of 45.3 percent of non-oil gross domestic product (GDP) in 2021. This fiscal stance entails significant risks that bring the country toward a damaging fiscal cliff in 2035. Albeit narrowing, there is a window of opportunity for the government to urgently implement the much-needed reforms in the next five years. There are several potential drivers for increased regional integration. These include the operationalization of the Tibar Bay port, the modernization of the Dili airport, the internet submarine cable installation, and the World Trade Organization (WTO) accession progress. Success requires a concerted and persistent government effort to address supply-side constraints, kick-start economic diversification, and boost export. This report provides an in-depth analysis of Timor-Leste’s economic performance in recent decades and proposes policies to enhance growth. It highlights two key interrelated constraints to sustained and inclusive growth: the ‘missing’ private sector and the need to tap into the growth-enhancing benefits of international trade. Given the diminishing returns of public investments, pursuing a sustainable development path will require a shift toward a more dynamic, private sector-driven growth model. Furthermore, with the right combination of a supportive enabling environment and trade policies, Timor-Leste could capitalize on incipient and established comparative advantages for its exports. Accordingly, the reforms to support private sector development and expand exports have the potential to boost Timor-Leste’s international competitiveness and improve economic diversification.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Publication
    Zimbabwe Country Economic Memorandum: Boosting Productivity and Quality Jobs
    (Washington, DC, 2022-10) World Bank
    Despite various economic setbacks, Zimbabwe regained lower middle-income country (LMIC) status in 2018 and aspires to become an upper middle-income country (UMIC) by 2030. The focus of this Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) is to identify options for structural reforms to help Zimbabwe accelerate economic growth and to achieve UMIC status. This is the first CEM for Zimbabwe since 1985 and it comes at a critical juncture along Zimbabwe’s development path. The objective of the report is to support and inform policy makers and stakeholders on policies to accelerate economic growth, boost productivity, and create high-quality jobs. In this regard, the CEM first establishes macroeconomic stability as a necessary condition for high and sustained growth. It then uses productivity as an overall framing to identify key structural bottlenecks, before providing deep-dives on informality and trade as priority areas to address in order to unleash productivity growth. Importantly, the report also aims to present data about Zimbabwe’s economic performance in a systematic fashion, focusing on the previous two decades and comparing Zimbabwe with its peers in the region, as well as aspirational peers globally.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Publication
    Ethiopia’s Great Transition: The Next Mile - A Country Economic Memorandum
    (Washington, DC : World Bank, 2022-06-17) World Bank
    Ethiopia’s rapid growth over the past two decades has resulted in a surge in income per capita levels, with the country approaching fast the middle-income milestone. Over the past decade, fast growth was driven by capital accumulation, but the extent to which this growth has been equally distributed is unclear. Public infrastructure spending accelerated dramatically in the first half of the 2010s, helping underpin fast economic growth. However, this approach seems to have had important shortcomings. Contrary to the findings of World Bank (2015) which examined an earlier period, total factor productivity (TFP) declined during 2011-2020, contributing negatively to growth. In addition, inequality at the household level increased between 2011 and 2016. Finally, macroeconomic imbalances have widened, a trend exacerbated by recent shocks. This report discusses the drivers of growth in Ethiopia and, in the absence of official subnational gross domestic product (GDP) figures, examines whether there has been convergence in economic activity at the subnational level.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Publication
    Georgia Country Economic Memorandum: Charting Georgia’s Future
    (Washington, DC, 2022-06) World Bank
    From the Coronavirus (COVID) pandemic to the war in Ukraine, the world and Georgia are experiencing more uncertainty and accelerating disruption. As a small open economy looking to integrate with the global economy, Georgia must carefully navigate these trends by being prepared for the risks and on the lookout for emerging opportunities. A more capable, competitive and connected Georgia will be better placed to navigate these trends. This Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) aims to inform the policies that could offset these headwinds. To sustain productivity growth, Georgia needs to facilitate its structural transformation and the corresponding spatial adjustment (Chapters 1 and 2). Furthermore, growth will increasingly need to come from improvements in total factor productivity (TFP) in Georgia’s firms (Chapter 3) and advancement in their ability to exploit opportunities in external markets (Chapter 4). Finally, more active and better-skilled labor (Chapter 5) can help offset existing demographic trends and augment productivity. Progress in these areas, supported by higher savings, will make Georgia’s economy more competitive, connected, and capable, help sustain robust GDP growth over the long-term and turn Georgia’s aspirations into reality.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Publication
    Leveraging Global Value Chains for growth in Turkey: A Turkey Country Economic Memorandum
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-03-02) World Bank
    Turkey saw phenomenal growth in the 2000s as economic reforms ushered in FDI, GVCs expanded, and productivity increased. The early 2000s saw Turkey exit from major economic crisis with a strengthened fiscal framework, a strengthened, inflation-targeting mandate for the Central Bank, the establishment of an independent bank regulator, and importantly, a recently agreed Customs Union agreement with the EU. From 2001 to 2017, incomes per capita in Turkey doubled in real terms and tripled in current dollar terms. Turkey transformed from a lower-middle-income country (LMIC) at the start of the 2000s to very nearly reaching high-income status by 2014. This drove a rapid fall in poverty from above 30 percent to just 9 percent1. Very few other countries matched Turkey’s growth over this period, and almost all of them were new EU member states.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Publication
    Pathways to Sustainable Growth in Niger: A World Bank Group Country Economic Memorandum
    (Washington, DC, 2022) World Bank
    This country economic memorandum aims to support Niger’s efforts to walk on a path conducive to a resilient and sustainable economic growth. It does so by attempting to answer the following five questions, each of which constitutes a separate chapter: (i) what were the salient structural characteristics of Niger’s growth performance in the last 20 years; (ii) what are the margins to accelerate growth in the medium to long term; (iii) how can technology be a vehicle for private sector development; (iv) how can the country’s large natural resource endowments be managed in a transparent way that benefits the whole population; and (v) how can the current disaster management framework be strengthened to increase resilience to natural shocks
  • Thumbnail Image
    Publication
    From Swimming in Sand to High and Sustainable Growth: A Roadmap to Reduce Distortions in the Allocation of Resources and Talent in the Pakistani Economy
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022) World Bank Group
    This report focuses on growth in Pakistan, and on key aspects of its proximate determinants: productivity, capital, and talent accumulation. Productivity is crucial in accounting for differences in standards of living across countries and time. In addition, and particularly at the level of development of Pakistan, factor accumulation, investment, and human capital, also matters. Specific and policy relevant questions around these broad themes are this report's center of attention. The underlying framework of analysis and orientation of public policy recommendations is what is known as the 'ABC' of growth. This 'ABC' implies improving allocative efficiency of resources and talent, encouraging business-to-business connections and spillovers, and strengthening firms' capabilities. Public policies oriented to create an enabling environment around these three pillars will be powerful in boosting sustainable growth. However, the efficient allocation of talent and resources, and the business-to business interactions leading to spillovers and the conditions to upgrade capabilities, are limited by economic distortions (or market failures) that inhibit the growth process, sometimes making it as difficult as swimming in sand.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Publication
    Bangladesh Country Economic Memorandum: Change of Fabric
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022) World Bank Group
    Bangladesh’s development progress over the past decades has been remarkable. Bangladesh has been among the fastest growing economies in the world. Economic development has translated into higher living standards and improved social and health outcomes. The next years will determine Bangladesh’s longer term development trajectory. The milestones ahead reflect the deep structural transformation of Bangladesh’s economy over the past decades, but also serve as a reminder that further transformation will be required for a prosperous future. Sustaining fast growth and addressing these global challenges will require overcoming three critical growth constraint. This report explores these constraints and proposes actionable reforms to sustain development. It is expected to inform the public and help the authorities design policies to achieve the goals set out in the eighth five year plan and Bangladesh vision 2041. The report focuses on three growth constraints: (i) diversifying exports and increasing competitiveness to reach the next development stage through export-led growth; (ii) mobilizing domestic and international savings to channel them toward productive investment; and (iii) upgrading urban areas, unleashing secondary cities, and improving connectivity to sustain structural transformation and increase productivity. In addition, the implications of digital development and climate change are explored as crosscutting themes across the three topics.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Publication
    Resilient Development - A Strategy to Diversify Cambodia’s Growth Model: Cambodia Country Economic Memorandum
    (World Bank, Phnom Penh, 2021-12) World Bank
    The devastating impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the Cambodian economy—where the growth slowdown was among the most pronounced in the East Asia and Pacific (EAP) region—lies in the country’s growth generating process. Recent growth has been remarkable, but insufficiently diversified in products, markets, and factor inputs. The diversification problem is rooted in low and declining productivity; low quality and weak export linkages; and high foreign direct investment (FDI) but low domestic investment. Just when past success was fueling high ambitions for future growth—to become upper middle income by 2030 and high income by 2050—the pandemic threatens to put those targets out of reach. Cambodia’s policymakers have the opportunity to build a new and stronger growth path—by enabling productivity of firms and workers, diversifying exports, and harnessing domestic investment. But an ambitious reform agenda is needed—one that focuses on improving capabilities, strengthening regulations, and investing in infrastructure.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Publication
    Tajikistan Country Gender Assessment
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-11-30) World Bank
    Tajikistan has a lot to show in terms of creating an enabling policy framework for gender equity, yet large gendered challenges remain. The global COVID-19 outbreak is impacting economies around the world, including Tajikistan, in an unprecedented manner and aggravates existing gender challenges. This report is presenting achievements made and challenges still to be addressed in view of gender-equity in Tajikistan, based on a desk study covering using most recent material from Tajikistan national sources, the World Bank, development partners and others. It is oriented towards key strategic objectives of the World Bank Group (WBG) Gender Strategy for the period of FY17-FY23 with relevance for the Tajikistan context.