Country Economic Memorandum

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    Country Economic Memorandum for Sao Tome and Principe - Background Note 11: What is the Potential and Hindrances for the Tourism Sector in Sao Tome and Príncipe?
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-06-26) Monte-Rojas, Gabriel
    The purpose of this paper is to empirically evaluate the tourism performance of STP with respect to the main determinants that have been found in the literature. Tourism is clearly a comparative advantage of STP and already an important economic activity, however, STP is far from the characterization of a tourism-dependent small economy. Tourism represents 10.8 percent of GDP and the ratio between international inbound tourists and population is at 14.5 percent. For a summary of how STP relates to other destinations. This puts STP as the twelfth country in terms of size of direct contribution of the tourism sector to GDP and the eighteenth in terms of the ratio between tourists and population. Using data from different sources, this note analyzes STP’s tourism-related characteristics and uses different empirical tools to evaluate them vis-à-vis its peers. Economic literature shows that tourism demand is affected by price and income but also by a host of other factors such as air connectivity, language, and culture among others. First, there is an extensive research agenda on measuring price and income elasticities of tourism, which is specific for different types of tourism destination. Second, there is a myriad of characteristics that are found to be important to the tourism industry, such as remoteness, language, culture, air connectivity, bilateral trade, etc. More recently, there has been many studies emphasizing the role of digital media and digital presence1 as a key determinant of tourist decisions.
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    Country Economic Memorandum for Sao Tome and Principe - Background Note 14: The Case for Economic Inclusion of Sexual and Gender Minorities in São Tomé and Príncipe
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-06-26) Cortez, Clifton John ; Arzinos, John (Ioannis)
    The purpose of this analysis is to provide a snapshot of exclusion based on SOGI in São Tomé and Príncipe (STP) and the opportunities for SOGI inclusion especially in the tourism sector. The main questions for the reader to consider are: Why is the World Bank involved in SOGI? How can STP benefit from SOGI inclusion? What can be done to ensure SOGI inclusion in STP? Finally, the central takeaway from this analysis is that excluding sexual and gender minorities negatively impacts economic development and poverty reduction, whereas including them is beneficial to economic development and poverty reduction. The theoretical argument is that exclusion costs money. Exclusion based on sexual orientation and gender identity often begins as early as the primary school years and continues in the workplace, as well as more broadly in the economy and in society. As a result, sexual and gender minorities face significant stigma that prevents them from realizing their productive potential and limits their ability to contribute to the economy and to society. When anyone is excluded from the labor force based on indelible personal characteristics unrelated to ability, such as sexual orientation or gender identity, both the economy and social cohesion suffer.
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    Country Economic Memorandum for Sao Tome and Principe - Background Note 13: What Do We Know about Gender in São Tomé and Príncipe
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-06-26) Kirkwood, Daniel
    The objective of this note is to provide a summary of gender-related statistics and research in São Tomé and Príncipe in the areas of human capital, economic empowerment, and gender-based violence (GBV). The data comes from surveys conducted by the national statistics office and from international databases, such as the Women, Business, and the Law database and the various databases that feed into the World Development Indicators. Whenever possible the note compares the gender situation in STP with peer countries. It also summarizes data and knowledge gaps on gender. STP has made strong progress on gender equality in human capital yet has been unable to translate this into the economic empowerment of women. While its performance on gender-related indicators of human capital are like other middle-income countries, STP’s performance on indicators related to women’s economic empowerment more closely resembles its low-income neighbors. This is partly explained by traditional gender norms, which restrict women’s income generating versus their domestic role and impede their personal safety.