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PublicationGhana - Mining and Development(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2004-10) Mohan, P.C.The objectives of the project ($9.37 million, 1996-2001) were to (a) enhance the capacity of the mining sector institutions to carry out their functions of encouraging and regulating investments in the mining sector in an environmentally sound manner and (b) support the use of techniques and mechanisms that will improve productivity, financial viability and reduce the environmental impact of small-scale mining operations. It had two components: Strengthening of Mining Sector Institutions, and Assistance to Small-scale Mining Enterprises. The project took into account lessons learned from three previous operations in Ghana which focused on developing the mining sector: the Export Rehabilitation project, the Export Rehabilitation Technical Assistance project, and the Mining Sector Rehabilitation project. PublicationGhana - Highway Sector Investment Program(Washington, DC, 2004-07) World BankThe objective of the project (IDA credit of $100 million over the period 1997-2001) was to assist the Government of Ghana to increase economic growth by (a) maintaining, rehabilitating and reconstructing roads and (b) ensuring sustained improvements in the road sector by (i) developing and implementing cost recovery policies, (ii) building indigenous capacity in the public and private sectors, and (iii) improving financial management control in the road sector. PublicationMicro and Rural Finance in Ghana : Evolving Industry and Approaches to Regulation(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2004-01) Steel, William F.; Andah, David O.The note reviews the structure and performance of Ghana's rural, and micro-finance institutions (RMFIs), through a financial system, namely comprising three main categories: formal, semi-formal, and informal systems. It then analyzes the liberalization of its financial policies (late 1980s) and the supervision regime, indicating that while Ghana's approach has yielded a wide range of RMFIs, and products - potentially outreaching the poor based on savings mobilization - it has also permitted the easy entry of institutions with weak management, and internal controls. This demonstrates the difficulty in striking the right balance between encouraging entry and innovation, and establishing adequate supervision capacity. PublicationGhana : Coastal Wetlands Management(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2002-06) Mohan, P. C.The objectives of the Coastal Wetlands Management Project for Ghana (1993-99) were to maintain the ecological integrity of five key coastal wetland areas by involving the people who derive their livelihood from these ecosystems in the planning and implementation of management programs; to identify and monitor the common resources that benefit the human and bird populations in the wetlands, and manage them without unduly restricting the options of people to derive benefit from the resources. It would also develop capabilities at government and community level for implementing the program. This project was implemented with the assistance of a Global Environmental Trust Fund grant. PublicationGhana : Tracking Public Resource Flows in Schools and Clinics(Washington, DC, 2002-04) World BankAn accurate estimate of public expenditure flows must start from the distribution and recording systems which would permit accurate tracking. While the strategies to improve these systems in Ghana are beyond the scope of this study, it presents here the problems encountered while trying to track public expenditures. Hopefully, this will provide an entry point for relevant parties to discuss the best ways to increase the efficiency of public expenditure distribution. Estimated resource flows are also presented. Although the accuracy of estimates is not claimed in absolute terms, the patterns of the public expenditure distribution revealed by these estimates were consistent with the perceptions of district level education and health officers, to whom these results were presented at a workshop in Ghana. PublicationIntegrated Coastal Zone Management Strategy for Ghana(World Bank, Washington, DC, 1998-06) Hewawasam, InduEnvironmental degradation of coastal areas was identified as a key issue in Ghana's Environmental Action Plan. The central objective of the World Bank-assisted Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) initiative in Ghana, which commenced in 1995, was to identify economically, socially and environmentally appropriate interventions and projects in the coastal zone that improve the prospects for human development. ICZM is recognized by governments, international agencies and by the donor community as a process through which coastal eco-systems and resources can be protected, developed and managed in a sustainable manner. In order for implementation to be successful, effective ICZM must be based on a clear understanding of the complexities of the relation between coastal natural resources, and the coastal population that subsists on these resources. More concretely, this understanding must relate to how specific economic, political, social and technical parameters link, in a reciprocal way, specific coastal ecosystems and specific human activities. PublicationGhana - Building Local Capacity for Integrated Coastal Zone Management(World Bank, Washington, DC, 1998-04) Mohan, P. C.During 1996 and 1997, a series of Bank-assisted workshops were held under the auspices of the Environmental Protection Agency, Ghana. They intended to: 1) raise awareness among coastal communities of the need for better management of the marine and coastal ecosystem; 2) identify the priority needs of coastal communities; 3) identify appropriate, cost-effective interventions for addressing these needs; 4) raise awareness of ongoing initiatives to support such interventions; and 5) assist coastal communities in the design of appropriate small-scale initiatives to address priority needs. PublicationGhana : Bringing Savers and Investors Together(World Bank, Washington, DC, 1995-04) Boehmer, Hans-Martin; Wetzel, Deborah; Gupta, ArvindAfter 10 years of successful adjustment, with real economic growth averaging 5 percent per year, Ghana's recorded savings and investment rates remain very low - even by sub-Saharan African standards. However, survey evidence suggests that actual savings and investment rates are much higher than recorded rates. National accounts statistics do not capture a large part of the underlying savings and investment activities of the household, rural, and informal sectors. Comparative financial indicators confirm that Ghana's financial system is not very deep and as a result not fully contributing to economic growth. Ghana's broad money holdings are small relative to GDP when compared to other countries with similar per capita income. Also, currency holdings are relatively large, suggesting that Ghanaians prefer cash to bank accounts. Meanwhile, the bulk of financial savings has financed public sector deficits, leaving little for private investment finance. There is considerable evidence that many household savings are invested in real assets yielding zero, or negative, returns. Widespread lack of trust in formal financial channels makes these nevertheless the preferred form of investment. Ghana can grow faster with existing savings by improving the efficiency of investments through enhanced finanical intermediation.