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Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2002-05) Verhey, BethAs highlighted in the seminal UN study on the "Impact of armed conflict on children," an increased involvement of recent decades, stands as one of the most egregious child rights violations. Yet, a new study "Child soldiers: preventing, demobilizing, and reintegrating," demonstrates that children, and youth involved in armed conflict can re-engage positive social relations, and productive civilian lives. Such reintegration of child soldiers, in tandem with community recovery for children affected by armed conflict, is a key area of post-conflict reconstruction, and sustainable development goals. The study draws on experiences, and lessons learned, primarily from in-depth case studies in Angola and El Salvador, and integrates other country program experiences. Prevention lessons outline the vital role of civil society, and the need for external support; demobilization lessons stress that child soldiers must be specifically included in peace agreements and demobilization processes; and, reintegration lessons highlight three components essential to effective reintegration: family reunification; psychosocial support; and, education and economic opportunity.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2001-04) Parker, AndrewBad governance undermines development. Two important types of World Bank support for local governance are social funds and broadly based support for governments committed to decentralizing responsibility and power to local governments and other local institutions. But there are concerns that these two approaches, which address different elements of governance, sometimes work at cross-purposes. A study was therefore commissioned to examine the interaction between social funds and decentralization in Bolivia and Honduras (advanced decentralization), Peru and Zimbabwe (some decentralization), and Cambodia, Malawi, and Zambia (little or no decentralization). This Note is based on the findings of the study.