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Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-08-22) World BankThis report leverages patent data and relatedness analysis to identify the factors that affect the technological transition of firms toward industry 4.0 technologies by looking at the technological trajectories of Korean manufacturing firms. Based on a unique dataset of Korean manufacturing firms’ patents and their financial and market information, the research follows the Principle of Relatedness to trace a firm’s footprint in a technology space. The technology space can help identify how previously accumulated capability in firms can positively affect technological diversification and developing I4 technologies. The research further analyzes the impact of public R&D support in I4 technology development. The analysis finds that public support is relatively more effective for firms that possess low technological relatedness and less so for firms that already have accumulated related technologies. This research is expected to inform policy design supporting firm diversification towards I4 transition.
Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-07-07) World BankGenerative artificial intelligence (AI) has been developing rapidly and has attracted significant attention in recent years, with numerous advances and breakthroughs. The generative AI market is expected to grow from 1.5 billion dollars in 2021 to 6.5 billion dollars by 2026 - a compound annual growth rate of 34.9 percent. Acknowledging the growing importance of generative AI in research and practical applications, including its use to solve international development challenges, this report provides a comprehensive overview of generative AI, introduces the basics, explains its development over time, and examines its types and applications. After highlighting the benefits and capabilities of generative AI, the report explores how it can be applied in various industries such as health care, manufacturing, media, and entertainment and then discusses potential opportunities and limitations users must consider. Finally, it describes initiatives and strategies that the Korean government and private sector players have implemented to adopt and advance generative AI in Korea and the global marketplace. The fifth issue in the Emerging Technology series, generative AI is the result of a collaboration effort of the World Bank Group Information Technology Solutions Technology and the World Bank Korea Country Office. The series captures new technology and trends and shares knowledge to help solve international development challenges.
Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-07-06) World BankAn identification card that proves a person’s identity is essential in modern society. It allows individuals to access various online and in-person public services by verifying their identity. Through an identity (ID) card, government services such as civil complaints, taxation, health care, insurance, and pension can be smoothly provided. In some cases, the ID card may contain additional information, such as home address or eligibility for certain services, which can be used to verify your identity and eligibility for certain benefits. ID cards are crucial for accessing public - and private - services where the individuals need to verify the information. However, most IDs are issued and controlled by external authorities and information is shared and revoked upon the request. A decentralized identifier (DID) is a new type of globally unique persistent identifier that does not require centralized registration authorities. Repeatedly generated and registered cryptographically, DIDs enable a new model of decentralized digital identity, which is referred as self-sovereign identity or decentralized identity. This sometimes allows users to verify information rapidly without having to contact multiple issuing parties. This 4th issue in the Emerging Technology series briefly describes the DID and its potential for solving development challenges, alongside key highlights of Korea’s experience and lessons learned in regard to the exploration and adoption of emerging technologies.