Other Poverty Study

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An Opportunity for All: Venezuelan Migrants and Refugees and Peru's Development

2019-11-24, World Bank

Faced with the Venezuelan exodus of unprecedented magnitude in recent Latin American and Caribbean history, the main objective of this study is to determine the social, economic and sectoral implications that this phenomenon is having on Peru, in order to inform the public policy agenda with a view to development. The study presents an analysis which characterizes the different dimensions of the Venezuelan migration to Peru: from the trajectory to the country, the institutional reception and response framework, opportunities and challenges for social integration, gender dynamics, and the Venezuelan population’s access to services and insertion into the labor market. The analysis also provides recommendations that seek to contribute to the strengthening of a humane and orderly migration management, and to capitalize on the potential of an adequate integration of the migrant and refugee population in Peru.

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In Search of Opportunities : How a More Mobile Workforce Can Propel Ukraine’s Prosperity (Vol. 1 of 2) : Summary Report

2012-05, World Bank

Ukrainians do not move often, and when they do move, they don't necessarily go to areas with good jobs and high wages. Internal mobility is about half of what is expected when comparing Ukraine with other countries. The lack of mobility is remarkable, given the availability of more jobs and better wages in several Ukrainian cities. Too few people are taking advantage of economic opportunities, and as a result, Ukraine's structural transformation has stalled. This is a sharp contrast to many other countries in Eastern Europe, where the transition to a market economy has been accompanied by a shift from widely-dispersed industries to a concentration of capital and production in a few areas, and from low- to higher-productivity sectors. Labor has largely mirrored the movement of capital and production. In Ukraine, however, labor is not flowing as smoothly to areas of high production. This report examines the mobility of workers inside Ukraine and their willingness to physically relocate from one area or region to another in search of better economic opportunities. The report explores the patterns and trends of labor mobility in Ukraine as well as the drivers and constraints of that mobility, and derives policy implications from its findings. Second chapter of this volume offers evidence of how a mobile workforce benefits the economy. It shows how the economic transition in most of Eastern Europe has been accompanied by the significant concentration of capital and people in a few areas. This has not happened to the same extent in Ukraine. Third chapter shows that what little migration we see in Ukraine is not necessarily going to the leading regions. For internal migration to lead to growth and better living standards, workers have to move to the areas of the country where productivity and therefore, wages are high, and where unemployment is low. Third chapter more over examines the factors that prevent Ukrainians from moving. Fourth chapter offers recommendations for creating greater labor mobility in Ukraine. It explains how addressing the institutional bottlenecks that affect internal mobility will allow more people, especially the poor, to access better jobs, accelerating growth and enabling living standards to rise.

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Vietnam Labour Market and Informal Economy in a Time of Crisis and Recovery 2007-2009: Main Findings of the Labour Force Surveys

2010-12, Chi, Nguyen Huu, Huyen, Nguyen Thi Thu, Razafindrakoto, Mireille, Roubaud, Francois

In 2007 the General Statistics Office (GSO) launched a joint research program with the French Institute of Research for Development (IRD) to measure and analyzes the informal sector in Vietnam. Two kinds of surveys were conducted in 2007: a national Labour Force Survey (LFS) which, in a first for Vietnam classified labour by institutional sector thereby separating out the informal sector; and two specific surveys in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) which were grafted onto the LFS2007 to find out more about the characteristics of household businesses (HB) in general and especially the informal sector (HB&IS2007). This brief presents the main findings (both methodological and analytical) of these two rounds of LFS as regards the labour market and the informal economy in Vietnam. In the context of the global crisis, it looks at the dynamics of the main labour market indicators with a special focus on informal sector and informal employment between 2007 and 2009.For the first time ever in Vietnam, it is possible measure precisely the evolution of the informal economy and to check for the robustness of the estimates provided. In the conclusion the author outline some of the implications of the findings in terms of survey design and economic and social policies.

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Labor Migration and Welfare in the Kyrgyz Republic (2008-2013)

2015-05-08, World Bank Group

This paper examines the impact of labor migration from a welfare and social development perspective. Rather than focusing on regulatory and legal aspects determining migration, this note centers on the impacts of migration on the domestic welfare of households in the Kyrgyz Republic. The profiling of labor migration and identification of knowledge gaps are used to inform the development of strategies for more effective and sustainable welfare impacts from labor migration and remittances.

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In Search of Opportunities : How a More Mobile Workforce Can Propel Ukraine’s Prosperity (Vol. 2 of 2) : Technical Report

2012-05, World Bank

Ukrainians do not move often, and when they do move, they don't necessarily go to areas with good jobs and high wages. Internal mobility is about half of what is expected when comparing Ukraine with other countries. The lack of mobility is remarkable, given the availability of more jobs and better wages in several Ukrainian cities. Too few people are taking advantage of economic opportunities, and as a result, Ukraine's structural transformation has stalled. This is a sharp contrast to many other countries in Eastern Europe, where the transition to a market economy has been accompanied by a shift from widely-dispersed industries to a concentration of capital and production in a few areas, and from low- to higher-productivity sectors. Labor has largely mirrored the movement of capital and production. In Ukraine, however, labor is not flowing as smoothly to areas of high production. This report examines the mobility of workers inside Ukraine and their willingness to physically relocate from one area or region to another in search of better economic opportunities. The report explores the patterns and trends of labor mobility in Ukraine as well as the drivers and constraints of that mobility, and derives policy implications from its findings. Second chapter of this volume offers evidence of how a mobile workforce benefits the economy. It shows how the economic transition in most of Eastern Europe has been accompanied by the significant concentration of capital and people in a few areas. This has not happened to the same extent in Ukraine. Third chapter shows that what little migration we see in Ukraine is not necessarily going to the leading regions. For internal migration to lead to growth and better living standards, workers have to move to the areas of the country where productivity and therefore, wages are high, and where unemployment is low. Third chapter more over examines the factors that prevent Ukrainians from moving. Fourth chapter offers recommendations for creating greater labor mobility in Ukraine. It explains how addressing the institutional bottlenecks that affect internal mobility will allow more people, especially the poor, to access better jobs, accelerating growth and enabling living standards to rise.

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Ethiopia : Re-Igniting Poverty Reduction in Urban Ethiopia through Inclusive Growth

2010-01-01, World Bank

Ethiopia in the decade up to 2005 has been characterized by robust growth rates of the urban economy, where a still limited share of the population lives. The urban economy has been estimated to contribute at least half of gross domestic product (GDP) (53 percent in 2002/03) and to explain a significant part of its growth. Only an estimated 12.6 percent of the poor live in urban areas and the overwhelming concentration of poverty in rural areas seem unlikely to be reversed in the medium term. Sustained growth, to be shared among a relatively small part of the population, could have been expected to reduce poverty significantly in urban areas, but this has not been the case. While poverty incidence remains lower in urban than in rural areas, rural areas have made significant progress and the rural-urban gap in poverty incidence is decreasing.

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More Jobs, Better Jobs : A Priority for Egypt

2014-06, World Bank

Much of the current debate around the recent economic crisis in the Arab Republic of Egypt has focused on unemployment. Although unemployment is an important marker of labor market health, the jobs problem in Egypt precedes the recent crisis and is manifested markedly in other labor market metrics. Indeed, the link between growth and unemployment in Egypt is weak, particularly for men. This chapter argues that the reason for this weak link is partly related to decades of flawed industrial policies that have discouraged investment in employment-generating activities. Industrial policies, including those implemented in the mid-2000s, were never focused on mitigating market failures to promote the emergence of fast-growing, high-productivity firms. Instead, they have worked to preserve insider privileges, leading to growth in sectors that are not labor intensive. Policy makers therefore need to look beyond supply-side focused labor market policies to accelerate employment growth.

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Assessment of Development Needs of Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons in Eastern Sudan

2011-02-11, World Bank

East Sudan has received a continuous influx of internally displaced persons (IDPs) and refugees over the last forty years. Mass influxes were witnessed during years when the region experienced natural catastrophes as droughts and floods, or an escalation of tensions and conflict in neighboring countries, mainly Eritrea and Ethiopia. Presently there is still a steady but smaller in numbers influx of refugees, mostly from Eritrea, but with an apparent change in their social composition and expectations. Present day internal population movements relate to more conventional forms of migration within Sudan, that is, households in search of work and economic opportunities. Still, the situation of the large number of IDPs that moved to the area over 15 years ago and are living in camps is precarious and needs urgent attention. Presently there are not the basic conditions required to provide a durable solution to the refugees in a protracted situation in eastern Sudan. To a large extent that also applies to IDPs with long permanence in camps; there are not conditions to achieve self-reliance by most of the displaced population given the situation of their locations in eastern Sudan in terms of natural environment and its capacity to support sustainable agriculture and other urban and rural economic activities. Within the overall mission of the World Bank, its strategic objective in contributing towards the durable solution of forced displacement situations is to bring the affected countries and displaced population back to the path of peace and development, enabling the application of pro-poor policies and fostering economic growth. Under these conditions, the World Bank will be in a better position to engage the affected countries through its regular operations.

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Ethiopia - Urban Labor Markets : Challenges and Prospects, Volume 2. Background Paper

2007-03, World Bank

This report focuses on a central element of Ethiopia's challenge: the urban labor market. The headlines, which are detailed in the report, are dramatic, and include the following: open unemployment has been persistently high and average duration is long, though recent trends suggest improved performance. There is a significant segmentation-two relatively privileged sector in the public and formal private sectors, a massive informal sector and a large stock of unemployed. Individual transitions across these states have increased over time, but remain relatively limited. Formal sector employment in urban areas is dominated by the state and manufacturing sector employment remains among the lowest in the world. The majority of those who are working in urban areas are engaged in informal sector activity, typically as a last resort but also as a persistent state. Average wages are low, especially for the unskilled and in the informal sector, but productivity is also very low. Women are especially disadvantaged in the labor market-and typically face worse outcomes with higher levels of unemployment, lower wages, and a greater concentration in the informal sector. Many youth seem to enter the labor market through low quality jobs in the informal sector or into unemployment. The structure of this report is as follows. Volume I synthesizes the emerging findings and policy implications while Volume 2 presents a series of thematic chapters which summarize the underlying background work. In this volume the next chapter sets the stage for the analysis by clarifying the metrics of the key labor market indicators. Chapter 3 looks at the structure of urban labor markets and what has hindered their ability to generate jobs despite the acceleration of growth in the last few years. Chapter 4 focuses on the challenge of urban unemployment, while Chapter 5 looks at the effects of migration on urban labor markets. The final chapter in this volume reviews the emerging policy agenda.