Other Poverty Study

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  • Publication
    Human Development in Uganda : Meeting Challenges and Finding Solutions
    (Washington, DC, 2009-02) World Bank
    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set ambitious targets for economic and social development, earmarking eight broad targets. Uganda appears to be on track to meet four of these goals by 2015: halving the poverty rate, eliminating gender disparities in primary school, halving the number of people without safe drinking water, and reversing the spread of AIDS. The country s performance is off track, however, in achieving substantial reduction in infant, child and maternal mortality, halving the number of people without access to sanitation facilities, eliminating gender disparities in secondary school, and achieving 100 percent primary school enrolment. This report seeks to identify challenges to improvement of human development outcomes, and to suggest ways of dealing with these challenges in order to improve service delivery, and therefore progress in human development indicators. It examines how well Uganda has moved toward achieving its PEAP targets for human development, focusing on three sectors: education, health care, and water and sanitation. The report argues that the key to improvement in social services - whether it be education, health care, or water and sanitation - is a new more efficient service delivery framework, a framework with improved links among the policymakers who shape broad goals, the providers of the services, and the customers who are the recipients.
  • Publication
    Early Childhood Care and Development Project : Implementation Completion Memorandum
    (Washington, DC, 2008-04) World Bank
    The objective of the Project is to assist the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, through Save the Children UK on behalf of International Save the Children Alliance acting under the coordination of the Early Childhood Education Department of the Ministry of Education and Training (MOET) in establishing an enabling environment in the poorest and most vulnerable communities, and providing young children the opportunities to develop to their full potential. All communes in three selected provinces of project locations (Quang Tri, Yen Bai and Dien Bien) face food insecurity, limited access to markets, limited provision of basic infrastructures, poor health, inadequate education, high illiteracy, and environmental degradation. Despite the challenging contextual environment in which this grant has taken place, the grant objectives were largely highly satisfactorily met and fulfilled though four key intermediate project results: increased access and availability of early childhood care and development services and supplies; increased quality of early childhood care and development services (Health and Education); increased family and community awareness and capacity to promote utilization of early childhood care and development services; and improved implementation of policies in support of ethnic minority children.
  • Publication
    Cambodia - Sharing growth : Equity and Development in Cambodia, Equity Report 2007
    (Washington, DC, 2007-06-04) World Bank
    Cambodia's changing distribution of income-related outcomes is consistent with the process of transition from a planned to an open market economy, and the accompanying growth of incomes. This transformation has promoted better resource reallocation, expanded the spectrum of gainful activities, and widened the distribution of earnings. Aided by robust economic growth and improved capacity for implementing public policies, Cambodia has seen most other welfare outcomes (notably health and education indicators) become more equal over time. While a radical shift of development strategy is not necessary, improvements in public spending and selected interventions can further promote equality of opportunity, and public policies can promote an expansion of private investment opportunities. The findings of the report point to the following sets of government actions: (i) continuing economic reform to promote investments and sustain growth; (ii) protecting land tenure through systemic titling, and addressing landlessness related poverty through various measures (e.g., social land concessions; non-farm employment); (iii) building upon progress to date with further improvements in the quantity, quality and affordability of schooling and healthcare; and underpinning service delivery reforms with stronger and more responsive state institutions through continued reforms of public financial management and merit-based civil service pay.
  • Publication
    Decentralized Service Delivery for the Poor
    (Washington, DC, 2006-08) World Bank
    This report on the decentralized service delivery for the poor is structured in two volumes. Volume one is a cross-sectoral report, the core report. The first part includes the program and performance overview which describes the programs (including their poverty goals) and their process of decentralization, the overview of expenditures, the access of the poor to these services, and the evidence on the quality of services. The second part of the core report is on the institutional dimensions of decentralized service delivery which includes the World Development Report (WDR) 2004-type framework of accountability, adapted to the situation in Mexico. Volume two contains the sectoral pieces. For this report-the third phase of a programmatic series of studies on poverty in Mexico-Mexico's social cabinet requested that the Bank analyze service delivery of a specific list of programs that are essential to the government's development strategy in the context of decentralization. The elements of the government's strategy considered here-basic education, health care for the population without social security coverage, local social infrastructure, and local rural development-all aim directly or indirectly to reduce poverty. Both social and economic services shape the opportunities of poor people. Social services contribute to human capital formation and risk management, while economic services shape access to markets. The analysis presented in this report does not pretend to be exhaustive of decentralized service delivery for the poor. Important areas for future research include the following: (i) analysis of the compliance of the law or of the detail regulations in programs; (ii) systematic comparisons of state interventions in the sectors analyzed in this report; (iii) analysis of the implications and requirements to implement per capita funding in health and education, and freedom to choose providers; and (iv) systematic compilation of information at the state and municipal level on the performance of the programs.
  • Publication
    Mexico - Income Generation and Social Protection for the Poor : Volume 3. An Overview of Social Protection
    (Washington, DC, 2005-08) World Bank
    This report provides a strategic overview of Mexico's federal social protection system, comprised of both social insurance and social assistance programs. It assesses its performance to date regarding income risk management for vulnerable groups, and identifies options for stepping up that performance. In doing so it responds to an increasing consensus in Mexico regarding the need for a major social protection policy reform, even if the direction of those reforms is still in flux. The report is designed to provide a first stage diagnostic of major issues facing the social protection system, as an input to ongoing discussion and debate in Mexico, and as a platform for further technical work on the specifics of reform. The report focuses on the role of federal government in the design and implementation of social protection policies, while recognizing that sub-national governments are playing an important role in the provision of these services. In doing so, it draws upon the first phase of the Mexico Programmatic Poverty Work, as well as the urban, rural and vulnerability studies conducted in parallel with this analysis. The report is organized into four chapters. Chapter 1 presents a brief review of social protection concepts, and establishes a framework for determining the optimal role for government in the provision of social protection (risk management) tools, as distinct from market-provided risk management tools, and those undertaken informally by and between households. Chapter 2 discusses the major sources of income vulnerability in Mexico, identifying the major risks that Mexican families faces, and explores the extent to which households have access to private risk management mechanisms for addressing these risks. Chapter 3 provides an overview and assessment of the social protection system in Mexico, and finally Chapter 4 discusses issues and options.
  • Publication
    Afghanistan - Poverty, Vulnerability, and Social Protection : An Initial Assessment
    (Washington, DC, 2005-03) World Bank
    This report highlights the relationship between poverty, risk and vulnerability facing the people of Afghanistan. The report is divided in to five chapters: Chapter I provides a short historical overview of poverty and vulnerability and highlights some of the ways in which the Afghan people have survived more than two decades of conflict, recurring drought and other natural disasters. Chapters II and III focus on livelihoods, poverty and vulnerability in rural Afghanistan where more than three-quarters of the Afghan population live. Chapter IV focuses on the same subject matter in the urban areas. The final chapter of the report outlines the policy directions for poverty reduction and suggests that the essential path for poverty reduction is sustained, equitable, broad-based economic growth, with the State playing the role of facilitator, regular and financier of high-return infrastructure and services but leaving provision largely in the hands of the private sector, communities and NGOs. The objectives of the report are (i) to gain a more in-depth understanding of poverty and vulnerability as experienced by different socio-economic groups; (ii) to examine the range of risk-management instruments (informal and formal) that are available and to better understand their effectiveness; and (iii) to suggest the parameters of a broad-based poverty reduction strategy.
  • Publication
    Ageing and Poverty in Africa and the Role of Social Pensions
    (Washington, DC, 2005-03) Kakwani, Nanak; Subbarao, Kalanidhi
    In many low income African countries, three factors are placing an undue burden on the elderly. First, the burden on the elderly has enormously increased with the increase in mortality of prime age adults due to HIV AIDS pandemic and regional conflicts. Second, the traditional safety net of the extended family has become ineffective and unreliable for the elderly. Third, in a few countries, the elderly are called upon to shoulder the responsibility of the family as they became the principal breadwinners and caregivers for young children. While a number of studies have examined the welfare consequences of these developments on children, few studies have systematically analyzed the poverty situation among the elderly (relative to other groups) in low income countries Africa, and the role of social pensions. This study aims to fill this gap. Drawing on household survey information, the study profiles the elderly for 15 African countries which include both East and West African countries, and countries with a high and low prevalence of HIV-AIDS pandemic. The findings show much heterogeneity across countries with respect to the proportion of the elderly population, the living arrangements and the composition of households, and household headship. The variations in household types and living arrangements presumably reflect the variations in, and changing character of, the traditional family support system and household coping strategies in the wake of covariate shocks and the HIV-AIDS pandemic. However, the proportion of the single elderly is still very small in most countries. A household type "elderly and children" or what is known as "skipped generation household" has emerged as an important structure in some countries. In addition, "households headed by the elderly" has also emerged as a significant household type in several countries. The analysis shows that the poverty situation, and especially the poverty gap ratio, for the household types the elderly only, the elderly with children and the elderly-headed households is much higher than the average in several countries and the differences are statistically significant.
  • Publication
    Mozambique : Poverty and Social Impact Analysis, Primary School Enrollment and Retention, The Impact of School Fees
    (Washington, DC, 2005-01) World Bank
    Though the national education system, including primary education, is neither compulsory, nor free in Mozambique, the school network has witnessed an impressive expansion since the signing of the Peace Agreement in 1992. Enrollments in lower primary education (Ensino Primario do Primeiro Grau or EP1, grades 1 through 5) have reached near universal proportions. In the period from 1992 to 2003, the gross admission rate to grade 1, grew from 59 percent to 123 percent, the gross enrollment rate (GER) in EP1 increased from 60 percent to 112.7 percent, and the number of lower primary schools rose from 2,800 to over 8,000. Indicators of the internal efficiency and quality of education, however, do not display the same pattern of development: efficiency and quality indicators, such as repetition and dropout rates, the proportion of qualified teachers, and the number of school shifts and of daily hours of instruction, have improved only marginally. Given that repetition and dropout rates are about 22 percent and 8 percent respectively in EP1, the high access rate evident in grade 1 is obviously declining dramatically, as pupils move through the system. There is considerable debate in Mozambique on formal and informal school fees, and on the potential impact of a fee reduction, or the elimination of fees on the demand for schooling. The main objective of this poverty and social impact analysis (PSIA) is to measure the impact of direct costs (formal and informal school fees, and related schooling expenses), and opportunity costs on enrollment and pupil retention in primary education. The analysis also provides insights into the contextual factors associated with low pupil retention, and an examination of the likely impact, and magnitude of policy alternatives aimed at lowering all costs, and mitigating contextual factors.
  • Publication
    A Poverty Reduction Strategy for Egypt
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2004-09-25) Ministry of Planning of the Arab Repubic of Egypt; World Bank
    A critical objective of Egypt's long-run development plan (through 2022), is the "alleviation of poverty and attenuation of income disparities." Contributing to the refinement of a strategy to meet this objective, is the main goal of this report. The approach outlined in this report uses three distinct lenses to arrive at an appropriately focused set of priorities: Quantitative evidence: strategic priorities are derived as much as possible from empirical evidence on the nature, and dimensions of poverty in Egypt; 2) Link with ongoing programs: the strategy builds on the existing programs, and policies of the Government of Egypt, suggesting modifications where warranted by the lessons of experience from ongoing efforts; and, 3) Direct impact: the strategy tries to identify measures that have a direct impact on the poor, as opposed to those that are aimed at raising the living standards of the general population, or fixing the problems more generally of a given sector (such as education or health). Thus, the poverty reduction strategy articulated in this report is built around the three pillars of growth, education and social safety nets.
  • Publication
    Poverty in Mexico : An Assessment of Conditions, Trends, and Government Strategy
    (World Bank, Mexico, D.F., 2004-06-01) World Bank
    This report presents the results of an assessment of poverty conditions in Mexico, and of the Government strategies to reduce poverty. It constitutes the first phase of a longer-term work program on poverty reduction in Mexico that the Bank is undertaking in collaboration with the Government during the period 2003-2006. The current situation in the country is mixed, with respect to poverty. In terms of well-being, Mexico has experienced major progress in some dimensions - notably related to basic service access - but much weaker progress on others - notably on the income of the poor. Despite the gains between 1996 and 2002, and in particular, for the extreme poor, poverty remains widespread, and is only slightly below the levels prevailing before the 1994-1995 crisis. The report relates to government strategy, and its strengths. The CONTIGO framework is excellent as a conceptual framework, especially in its attempt to integrate the multiple dimensions of well-being, and public action into a life-cycle approach. There are notable successes in specific programs -with "Oportunidades" (i.e., "Opportunities ") unusual in its combination of highly effective targeting, and broad reach amongst the extreme poor. The emphasis on evaluation is commendable, while the recent introduction of the Ley de Desarrollo Social (Social Development Law) is a potentially valuable attempt to institutionalize the social development strategy, and in particular, provide more continuity across government administrations. But challenges still remain. The quality of services is a major issue in many sectors, for although social policies for the extreme poor are well developed, policies for their income growth are not. There is a broader pending agenda for the moderate poor, especially with respect to improving the productivity of the self-employed and informal enterprises. Most of the extreme and moderate poor fall outside the formal social protection system, and face significant risks, i.e., health, unemployment or lack of income in old age. And there are a wide range of institutional issues to be tackled - from strengthening accountability, especially under decentralized structures, to social incorporation of excluded groups - as well as linking of rigorous evaluation to results-based management.