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Publication(Washington, DC, 2006-04) World BankThis report examines the implications of spatial heterogeneity - the uneven distribution of poverty, growth, and environmental assets - for policy. Its goal is to inform a wide set of policies that are either explicitly spatially targeted or may have unanticipated spatial implications. These include poverty alleviation policies targeted on poor municipios; demand-driven poverty alleviation policies; territorial development policies aimed at stimulating growth in a multi-municipio region; growth policies targeted on semi-arid regions; policies to protect environmental assets. The report focuses on clarifying some of the fundamental assumptions and underpinnings of spatially oriented development policies, addressing six questions organized in three sections. Are policies targeted at poor municipios effective in reaching poor people? Do demand-driven policies favor poor people? What explains divergent labor market experiences in rural areas? Are poverty and economic stagnation in the Northeast closely tied to agroclimatic conditions? Is poverty a major determinant of Amazonian deforestation? Is there a steep trade-off between forest protection and agricultural output? The report advances knowledge in each of these areas, but unresolved issues remain for debate and research.
Brazil - Poverty Reduction, Growth, and Fiscal Stability in the State of Ceara : A State Economic Memorandum, Volume 2. Annexes(Washington, DC, 2000-08-21) World BankAlthough the State of Ceara, in Brazil, is a model of good economic, and fiscal performance given its poverty status, recent analysis show poverty remains severe, in spite of significant reductions over the last decade. The combination of good governance, and sound fiscal management, industrial promotion, and public investments have been successful, but the report questions whether different policies, could have led to higher growth, and poverty reduction, or, whether it is simply a matter of time to further reduce poverty rates. Arguably, Ceara can continue to develop economically, based on favorable assets, such as agriculture, or tourism, on a large labor force with wages comparatively low by Brazilian standards, and on fiscal responsibility. But development is constrained by low productivity, low education levels, and by large populations living in stagnant regions, where water accessibility is limited. While alternatives either suggest to: strengthen the existing policy on industry development; focus on massive public investments, namely education, and infrastructure; or, exercise an explicit welfare strategy, recommendations stipulate improvements in education, development of public-private partnerships, removal of industrial incentives through reform policies, implementation of institutional framework for water resource management, and, overall social safety nets to reduce poverty.