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Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-06-19) World BankA decade of rapid economic growth has supported upward mobility and the expansion of the middle class in the Philippines. While the Philippines’ record of economic growth has been sound, many East Asian countries have performed better, resulting in higher levels of economic mobility and more rapid middle-class expansion. This study aims to inform these efforts through an in-depth examination of varying factors that affect upward mobility and middle-class expansion in the Philippines.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-11-05) Nozaki, Natsuko Kiso ; Fuchs Tarlovsky, Alan ; Cancho, Cesar A.There is considerable public concern about the level of household indebtedness in Georgia. The new regulation expected to come into force on November 1, 2018 addresses this concern by enforcing the responsible credit framework targeting commercial banks. The objective of this note is twofold. First, the note presents micro-level evidence using the nationally representative household survey to understand households’ borrowing patterns with supporting evidence from perceptions surveys. Second, the note examines plausible causal effects of over-indebtedness on household’s welfare. This paper is structured as follows. Section 2 provides macroeconomic indicators and findings from perception survey as the background evidence. Section 3 illustrates the prevalence of borrowing among the households and identifies type of households that borrow from different sources. Section 4 shows results from the causal impact analysis of bank loans on household welfare. Section 5 concludes with directions for future research.