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Publication(World Bank, 2023-05-11) World BankThis urbanization review “Connecting the Greater Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica” focuses on the South Corridor, a lagging (sub)region within Costa Rica’s Greater Metropolitan Area (Gran Area Metropolitana, GAM), and the challenges facing the subregion as a result of rapid and unplanned urbanization, including housing, mobility, planning and municipal finance. The aim is to provide a framework for thinking about possible solutions to these challenges, with a view to improving the living conditions of its residents, connecting them to opportunities in the capital city, and addressing barriers to achieving sustainable development. As the analysis focuses on the different dimensions that constitute processes of rapid urbanization and how to manage them, the findings may be relevant for other urban centers and municipalities that may face a similar set of challenges as the South Corridor does.
Publication(World Bank, Lima, 2019-11-24) World BankFaced with the Venezuelan exodus of unprecedented magnitude in recent Latin American and Caribbean history, the main objective of this study is to determine the social, economic and sectoral implications that this phenomenon is having on Peru, in order to inform the public policy agenda with a view to development. The study presents an analysis which characterizes the different dimensions of the Venezuelan migration to Peru: from the trajectory to the country, the institutional reception and response framework, opportunities and challenges for social integration, gender dynamics, and the Venezuelan population’s access to services and insertion into the labor market. The analysis also provides recommendations that seek to contribute to the strengthening of a humane and orderly migration management, and to capitalize on the potential of an adequate integration of the migrant and refugee population in Peru.
Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2018-03) World BankPoverty rates in Guatemala are among the highest in Latin America and the Caribbean, and Guatemala is now the second poorest country in the region, with only post-earthquake Haiti being poorer. Guatemala is an extreme outlier in the region in terms of chronic malnutrition, and almost half of all children in the country suffer from stunting. This report is part of a global initiative to improve the evidence base on the linkages between water supply, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), human development, and poverty and seeks to understand this paradigm through a careful examination of trends in access to water and sanitation and in corresponding linkages to poverty and health. It also reviews the governance structure and expenditure plans underpinning service delivery in WASH sectors in Guatemala. Finally, the report the challenges facing the water and sanitation sector in Guatemala are significant and will require, among other things, stronger political leadership to successfully reform and regulate the sector, greater focus on rural sanitation, and increased spending and budget execution. One of the key elements of this diagnostics is highlight what conditions led to a struggling WASH sector, particularly in rural areas. Despite a steep increase in water and sanitation coverage in the last 15 years, sanitation coverage is falling far behind drinking water coverage, with the lowest levels of coverage in rural areas affecting predominantly indigenous populations.
Publication(World Bank, 2011-01-01) World BankCrime and violence are now a key development issue for Central American countries. In three nations El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras crime rates are among the top five in Latin America. This report argues that successful strategies require actions along multiple fronts, combining prevention and criminal justice reform, together with regional approaches in the areas of drug trafficking and firearms. It also argues that interventions should be evidence based, starting with a clear understanding of the risk factors involved and ending with a careful evaluation of how any planned action might affect future options. In addition, the design of national crime reduction plans and the establishment of national cross-sectoral crime commissions are important steps to coordinate the actions of different government branches, ease cross-sectoral collaboration and prioritize resource allocation. Of equal importance is the fact that national plans offer a vehicle for the involvement of civil society organizations, in which much of the expertise in violence prevention and rehabilitation resides. Prevention efforts need to be complemented by effective law enforcement. The required reforms are no longer primarily legislative in nature because all six countries have advanced toward more transparent adversarial criminal procedures. The second-generation reforms should instead help deliver on the promises of previous reforms by: (i) strengthening key institutions and improving the quality and timeliness of the services they provide to citizens; (ii) improving efficiency and effectiveness while respecting due process and human rights; (iii) ensuring accountability and addressing corruption; (iv) increasing inter-agency collaboration; and (v) improving access to justice, especially for poor and disenfranchised groups. Specific interventions reviewed in the report include: information systems and performance indicators as a prerequisite to improve inter-institutional coordination and information sharing mechanisms; an internal overhaul of court administration and case management to create rapid reaction, one-stop shops; the strengthening of entities that provide legal counseling to the poor and to women; and the promotion of alternative dispute-resolution mechanisms and the implementation of community policing programs.