Other Poverty Study

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    FYR of Macedonia: Measuring Welfare using the Survey of Income and Living Conditions
    (Washington, DC, 2015-05) World Bank
    This note expands the analysis on poverty and income distribution reported by the FYR Macedonia SSO for 2010 and 2011. The present work is based on an analysis performed in-situ by World Bank staff on the offices of the FYR Macedonian SSO.
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    Repbulic of Chad Poverty Notes : Dynamics of Poverty and Inequality following the Rise of the Oil Sector
    (Washington, DC, 2013-09) World Bank
    Chad's chronically unstable security situation has long undermined broad-based economic growth and sustainable poverty reduction. Since independence in 1960 Chad has suffered from sporadic political violence and ongoing tensions between different factions. The country's fragile security has been further compromised by interference from neighboring states and spillover effects from regional conflicts. However, after rebel attacks in 2008 and 2009, and following the recent conclusion of a peace agreement between Chad and Sudan, the security situation in the country has remained relatively calm, presenting a valuable window of opportunity for development efforts to take root. The objective of this Poverty Note is to examine changes in poverty and inequality in Chad since the emergence of the oil sector. It will focus on the evolution of poverty indicators from the 2003 pre-oil baseline captured in the Chadian Household Consumption and Informal Sector Survey, or ECOSIT2 to the more recent findings of the 2011 ECOSIT3 and compare current monetary and nonmonetary poverty conditions in Chad with those of comparable countries. It will go on to assess the impact of oil production on the non-oil sectors of the Chadian economy. Finally, it will evaluate the extent to which public expenditures in the social sectors benefit the poor by analyzing the progressivity of social spending.
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    Market Accessibility and Regional Maps : Kyrgyz Republic
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-04-01) Blankespoor, Brian
    Access to markets is argued to have a significant role in development. In order to quantify the access of places to markets, policy makers are showing increasing interest in accessibility indicators (Yoshida and Deichmann 2009). This paper seeks to examine the spatial relationship of access to market in the Kyrgyz Republic using a recent census and household survey in order to identify possible linkages with rates of poverty and other micro (spatial) information. This analysis uses the market accessibility index that measures the potential connectivity of population or expenditures between village/towns and big cities via the transport network. Results show that high market accessibility is located near the large cities with a concentration of infrastructure, while low access is more in the rural areas. Future work will use this indicator in economic models to statistical identify its significance with regards to per capita expenditure and poverty.
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    Addressing Vulnerability in East Asia : A Regional Study
    (Washington, DC, 2012-06) World Bank
    The East Asian and Pacific region has achieved tremendous progress in poverty reduction in recent years. However, further progress in poverty reduction may be undermined by the high levels of vulnerability in many countries across the region. The term vulnerability is viewed from an economic context, where it is conceived as the likelihood of suffering from future deteriorations in standard of living which may result in a state of poverty, or inability to meet basic needs. Therefore, vulnerability is stated as an ex-ante measure of well-being, reflecting not so much how well off a household (or an individual) currently is, but what its future prospects are. In thinking about poverty and vulnerability, it is important to realize that there are two groups of households: a) those who are vulnerable to transitory poverty if exposed to adverse shocks; and b) those who are structurally or chronically poor-many of those households have been affected by shocks in the past, and have limited long-term income generating capacity. To better protect household from shocks one must also better understand how households face and manage risks.
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    Social Exclusion in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Global Crisis
    (Washington, DC, 2012-03) World Bank
    The note is structured as follows: section two provides a brief discussion of the data; section three presents the Life in Transition-Supplemental Modules (LITS-SM) findings on the impact of the crisis, while section four presents the new profile of social inclusion indicators. How risk of poverty, material deprivation and low work intensity are inter-related, as well as how they are related to a consumption-based poverty measure is explored in section five. Two other dimensions of social inclusion, housing and long-term unemployment, are examined in section six. Section seven provides some concluding considerations.
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    Nutrition Interventions for the Most Vulnerable and Access to Humanitarian Supplies : Progress and Prospects
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2011-06-03) World Bank ; UN System High Level Task Force on Food Security
    This report relates to the food security pillar of the declaration on Development by G20 Leaders of the G20 Seoul Summit. It responds to a request from Brazil, Canada, France and Japan (co-facilitators on Food Security), on behalf of the co-chairs of the G20 Development Working Group. It contributes to Food Security Pillar Action 2 - the mitigation of risk associated with food insecurity and price volatility, and enhancement of protection for the most vulnerable. It focuses on enhancing human and social capital within communities at risk through a) ensuring access to humanitarian supplies and b) addressing the nutritional needs of the most vulnerable. It complements reports produced by others working on food security, including Price volatility in food and agricultural markets: Policy Responses prepared by nine international organizations under the coordination of FAO and OECD.
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    Ghana : Improving the Targeting of Social Programs
    (World Bank, 2011-06-02) World Bank
    This study, a draft of which was shared with the Government of Ghana in November 2009, provides a basic diagnostic of the benefit incidence and targeting performance of a large number of social programs in Ghana. Both broad-based programs (such as spending for education and health, and subsidies for food, oil-related products, and electricity) as well as targeted programs (such as Livelihood Empowerment against Poverty, or LEAP, the indigent exemption under the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), school lunches and uniforms, or fertilizer subsidies) are considered. In addition, the study provides tools and recommendations for better targeting of those programs in the future. The tools include new maps and data sets for geographic targeting according to poverty and food security, as well as ways to implement proxy means-testing. This executive summary provides a brief synthesis of the key findings and messages from the study.
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    Tackling Poverty in Northern Ghana
    (World Bank, 2011-03-01) World Bank
    Twenty years of rapid economic development in Ghana has done little, if anything, to reduce the historical North, South divide in standards of living. While rural development and urbanization have led to significant poverty reduction in the South, similar dynamics have been largely absent from Northern Ghana (or equivalently the North, defined as the sum of the administrative regions Upper West, Upper East, and the Northern region), which cover 40 percent of Ghana's land area. Between 1992 and 2006, the number of the poor declined by 2.5 million in the South and increased by 0.9 million in the North. In sharp contrast with the South, there was no significant decline in the proportion of poor in the population of the North. Ghana's success story in poverty reduction is the success story of its South. Finally, North-South migration should not be seen as detracting from the potential development of Northern Ghana. North-South migration is potentially a strong instrument for poverty alleviation. With the right human capital, many individuals could escape from poverty through migration to the dynamic South. This phenomenon however, remains marginal today. By the same token, greater North-South migration will most likely be a consequence of any development in Northern Ghana, at least for some decades. Indeed, with greater economic integration and better public service provision, the probability that residents of Northern Ghana will benefit from migration will tremendously increase, thus their incentive to migrate. Hence, one should not expect lower migration pressures from the development of Northern Ghana in the short run. On the contrary, attention should be paid to the quality of migration, which will entail strengthening social protection mechanisms to reduce negative migration, and raising human capital while increasing the absorptive capacities of cities to encourage positive migration. This migration to the South will further benefit the North, since migrants will add to the pool of remittances sent to Northern Ghana.
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    Liberia - Employment and Pro-Poor Growth
    (World Bank, 2010-11-29) World Bank
    Fourteen years of civil conflict (1989-2003) have destroyed Liberia's social and economic infrastructure and brought the economy nearly to a halt. Workers who came of age during the conflict are largely unskilled, and the supply of workers exceeds demand by a substantial margin. The negative effects of unemployment, underemployment, and low productivity on economic growth have made employment the most urgent demand of the population and the top priority for Government action. This report offers guidance to the Government of Liberia in its development of a more strategic approach toward increasing productivity and employment, in order to achieve its pro-poor growth objectives. This report includes seven sections: employment is key for poverty reduction; one in five workers is unemployed or underemployed; the structure of Liberia's economy limits prospects for formal sector employment; transformation of the agriculture sector is essential for pro-poor growth; investment and job growth in the formal sector are constrained by three main factors; labor-intensive public works programs are necessary for the very poor; and education and training must be improved to enhance employability.
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    Ethiopia : Re-Igniting Poverty Reduction in Urban Ethiopia through Inclusive Growth
    (Washington, DC, 2010-01-01) World Bank
    Ethiopia in the decade up to 2005 has been characterized by robust growth rates of the urban economy, where a still limited share of the population lives. The urban economy has been estimated to contribute at least half of gross domestic product (GDP) (53 percent in 2002/03) and to explain a significant part of its growth. Only an estimated 12.6 percent of the poor live in urban areas and the overwhelming concentration of poverty in rural areas seem unlikely to be reversed in the medium term. Sustained growth, to be shared among a relatively small part of the population, could have been expected to reduce poverty significantly in urban areas, but this has not been the case. While poverty incidence remains lower in urban than in rural areas, rural areas have made significant progress and the rural-urban gap in poverty incidence is decreasing.