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Living Conditions and Settlement Decisions of Recent Afghan Returnees: Findings from a 2018 Phone Survey of Afghan Returnees and UNHCR Data(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-06) World Bank Group ; UNHCRThis report is the result of a collaboration between the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the Poverty and Equity Global Practice of the World Bank Group (WBG). Repatriation or the return of refugees to their country of origin has been rarely studied, and data on their socio-economic outcomes is sparsely available. In such a context, the World Bank and UNHCR teams attempted to make good use of the existing data sources and complemented it with new data collection methods to better understand the patterns and characteristics of recent Afghan refugee returns. More specifically, the team attempted to analytically connect insights between different data sources to explore (albeit imperfectly) questions of selection among Afghans who remained in Pakistan and those documented returnees who returned to Afghanistan.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-09) World Bank GroupAfghanistan has been in protracted conflict for almost four decades, with direct implications on progress towards development objectives. This context of recurring episodes of violence and insecurity, economic and political instability, and the consequent displacement of populations within and outside the nation’s borders has important implications on the landscape of data and evidence available for the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of interventions and programs, and their timeliness and relevance. Afghans represent the world’s largest and most protracted refugee population, with an estimated 3.5 million people currently living abroad as refugees for more than four decades. Given the large disparities in poverty incidence and high levels of inequality within Afghanistan, the knowledge of living standards at more disaggregated geographical levels of districts and nahias could help inform policy design and improve decision making at a sub-province level. Therefore, poverty mapping, which aims at estimating poverty incidence at levels lower than the household survey, was applied in Kabul and Herat provinces. This technical report describes the methodology and data used to produce the Kabul and Herat poverty maps and presents the resulting collection of poverty maps, the first of its kind for Afghanistan. The structure of the report is as follows. Section 2 outlines the poverty mapping methodology, specifically the small area estimation approach, applied in Afghanistan. Section 3 discusses the data sources and the various technical challenges faced with the datasets. Section 4 discusses the modeling phase, including model selection, model parameters, and assumptions. Section 5 presents the poverty maps at a district and nahia level, and section 6 concludes. The Annexes contains supporting data and analysis.
Publication(World Bank, Kathmandu, 2016-10) World Bank GroupNepal is emerging from a series of crippling shocks. Barely recovered from the devastation and loss wreaked by the earthquakes in April 2015, the country experienced a near total economic seizure between September 2015 and January 2016 as cross-border trade with India came to a halt. The shortages of fuel, raw materials and other essential commodities caused prices to soar, businesses to curtail operations and the economy to register the lowest growth experienced in the last fourteen years. This report attempts to contribute by deepening the understanding of the key elements of the processes that have driven improvements in living standards and identify some of the challenges that lie ahead. This report also performs a careful analysis of the levels as well as the trends in inequality in last two decades in an attempt to understand the economic underpinnings of the demand for inclusion that has so fundamentally shaped Nepal’s contemporary socio-political landscape. Finally, this report also presents some novel insights on social and economic mobility experienced by Nepalis across generations as well as over a lifetime.