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Publication(World Bank, Lima, 2019-11-24) World BankFaced with the Venezuelan exodus of unprecedented magnitude in recent Latin American and Caribbean history, the main objective of this study is to determine the social, economic and sectoral implications that this phenomenon is having on Peru, in order to inform the public policy agenda with a view to development. The study presents an analysis which characterizes the different dimensions of the Venezuelan migration to Peru: from the trajectory to the country, the institutional reception and response framework, opportunities and challenges for social integration, gender dynamics, and the Venezuelan population’s access to services and insertion into the labor market. The analysis also provides recommendations that seek to contribute to the strengthening of a humane and orderly migration management, and to capitalize on the potential of an adequate integration of the migrant and refugee population in Peru.
Publication(Washington, DC, 2008-01) World BankThis report seeks to give a multifaceted view of non-tariff issues facing countries in the East Asia and Pacific region both vis-a-vis their most important export markets as well as intra-regionally. While the first perspective is important today given the high dependence of East Asian and Latin American countries on the markets of the EU, the US and Japan, the second is important in the context of countries' efforts to bring about ever closer regional integration. A large part of liberalization efforts have in the past focused on reducing tariff barriers to facilitate the integration of goods markets across the world and within particular regions. However, countries which were more serious about integration also recognized early on the importance of eliminating trade-reducing measures other than tariffs, so-called non-tariff measures or NTMs, which, if not already present, often sprung up precisely where tariffs were reduced. Country studies which draw on firm level surveys and interviews with government agencies and exporters' associations in East Asia and Latin America are presented in Part II of this report.