The Growth Commission’s reports identify the ingredients that, if used in the right country-specific recipe, can deliver growth and help lift populations out of poverty. The Commission, consisting of 19 experienced leaders and 2 Nobel prize-winning economists, has released several commission reports, thematic volumes, and background working papers. The spring 2010 volume is the final book from the Commission. The Commission is succeeded by The Growth Dialogue.
(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2009) Aghion, Philippe
Does education matter for growth? Which
type of education investment (primary, secondary, or
tertiary) matters most? Is there a relationship between
growth or innovation and the governance of higher education?
This paper surveys recent attempts at answering these
questions. It first contrasts the 'Lucas
approach,' whereby growth is affected by the
accumulation of human capital, with the 'Nelson?Phelps
approach,' whereby growth is affected by the stock of
human capital and by its interaction with the underlying
process of technological innovation. Then the paper argues
that growth in countries that are close to the world
technological frontier benefit more from tertiary education,
whereas countries that lie below the frontier benefit more
from primary and secondary education. Finally, the paper
discusses the relationship between innovation and the
governance of universities.
(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008) Ahmed, Sadiq; Varshney, Ashutosh
Rapid growth since 1980 has transformed
India from the world's 50th ranked economy in nominal
U.S. dollars to the 10th largest in 2005. The growth of per
capita income has helped reduce poverty. At the same time,
evidence suggests that income inequality is rising and that
the gap in average per capita income between the rich and
poor states is growing. This paper reviews India's long
term growth experience with a view to understanding the
determinants of growth and the underlying political economy.
The paper looks specifically at the political economy of
India's growth transformation from a low-growth
environment (pre-1980s) to a rapid-growth environment (post
1980s) and asks how sustainable is this transformation in
view of concerns about regional disparity and income
inequality. The paper concludes that the pledge that
India's post-independence leadership had undertaken to
abolish mass poverty remains only partially redeemed. Half
the battle still lies ahead. Many more would like the fruits
of the economic boom to come to them. The greatest challenge
for India's policy makers today is to balance the
growth momentum with inclusionary policies.