Items in this collection
Integrating Social Accountability Approaches into Extractive Industries Projects: A Guidance Note
2016-05, Heller, Katherine, van Wicklin III, Warren, Kumagai, Saki
This note provides guidance on how to use social accountability (SA) approaches in oil, gas, and mining projects, with particular emphasis on World Bank projects in the extractive industry (EI) sectors. It highlights some consequences of poor transparency and accountability in EI sectors and identifies opportunities for addressing these issues. It demonstrates how the use of SA approaches and tools can improve the implementation and outcomes of EI projects. Although the note is written primarily for a World Bank/International Finance Corporation (IFC) audience and project cycle, it is hoped that it will be a resource for government, industry, and civil society partners as well.
Extracting Lessons on Gender in the Oil and Gas Sector : A Survey and Analysis of the Gendered Impacts of Onshore Oil and Gas Production in Three Developing Countries
2013-05, Scott, Jen, Dakin, Rose, Heller, Katherine, Eftimie, Adriana
The oil, gas, and mining unit series publishes reviews and analyses of sector experience from around the world as well as new findings from analytical work. It places particular emphasis on how the experience and knowledge gained relates to developing country policy makers, communities affected by extractive industries, extractive industry enterprises, and civil society organizations. This paper explores the divergent experiences of women and men who live in areas that are directly affected by oil and gas development, and highlights how the industry specifically contributes to 'gender gaps' in the unequal distribution of assets and risks. Evidence from surveys and interviews with community members, company representatives, and government an official in oil-and gas-affected areas is analyzed and potential solutions are presented to reduce inequality, increase operational efficiency, reduce risks, and foster sustainable development. The paper aims to demonstrate how oil companies, policy makers, and donors, as well as citizens and nonprofits, can benefit from facilitating more equitable sharing of oil and gas wealth, with a particular focus on the inclusion of women. It points out the gains that can be realized through mutual collaboration to minimize harm for those people whose lives and environments are most directly impacted by the industry. Gender, as defined here, is differentiated from biological sex: gender describes the separate behaviors, identities and roles into which males and females are socialized, and contrasts the freedoms and constraints that come with these roles. This paper therefore examines how gender influences risks and opportunities in upstream areas of oil-rich, low income countries. The paper adopts a qualitative approach to research, presenting the perspectives of the people who live in the immediate vicinity of upstream operations and attempting to faithfully interpret what can be learned from their testimonies.
Implementing EITI at the Sub National Level : Emerging Experience and Operational Framework
2011-10, Aguilar, Javier, Seiler, Verena
The fundamental rationale behind Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) is that increased transparency and knowledge of revenues from the extractive industries will empower citizens and institutions to hold governments accountable. By implementing EITI at the sub national level, countries could reduce opportunities for mismanagement or diversion of funds from sustainable development purposes, especially for prominent oil, gas, or mining regions. It is also an effective way of strengthening EITI local ownership among stakeholders. This report presents a preliminary analysis of emerging experiences in EITI countries implementing sub national EITI. Six countries have been selected as case studies: Ghana, Indonesia, Mongolia, Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and Peru. Based on these experiences, the report proposes a common operational framework for implementing EITI at the sub national level, laying the ground for further practical guidelines on deepening or strengthening the sub national plans or activities of implementing countries.
Overview of State Ownership in the Global Minerals Industry : Long Term Trends and Future
2011, World Bank
This study builds on a previous study from the raw materials group, a Sweden-based minerals consultancy, originally commissioned by the World Bank in 2008. The trend toward more state engagement in the mining industry as noted in the 2008 study has continued, based on more recent developments. This study includes an expanded section on the new forms of state control which are found in Africa and also in Russia, China, India, and other emerging economies. It lays out the possible political implications of these trends and draws lessons from previous periods of increasing state ownership, including how to avoid previous mistakes. Various metals and the history of nationalization in a number of countries are analyzed as are the possible factors influencing the decision to nationalize, such as the sector's strategic importance and the need to control it. China's role in investing in Africa is discussed noting the issues concerning negotiation strategies, looking at the history of deals made in Sub-Saharan Africa. State ownership is defined in detail in appendix one of this document. A consolidated list of state ownership in mining of selected minerals and mineral refining on which the study is based is presented in appendix two.
The Contribution of the Mining Sector to Socioeconomic and Human Development
2014-04, McMahon, Gary
Many low and middle-income mineral-rich countries have experienced strong growth for a decade or longer, propelled by a rapid expansion of their mineral exports and a rise in prices of these commodities. This sustained strong economic performance goes against the accepted wisdom that even though the mining sector, like other extractive industries, can generate foreign exchange and fiscal revenues, it contributes little to sustained economic growth and, by extension, human development. Through the presentation of trends and patterns of various indicators, this paper shows that in addition to economic growth, countries rich in minerals other than oil have experienced significant improvements in their human development index (HDI) scores that are on average better than those experienced by countries without minerals. In a sample of five low and middle-income countries with relatively long histories of mining, benefits came from foreign direct investment (FDI), export revenues, and fiscal revenues. The overall impact of the mining sector was much stronger if there were infrastructure benefits and strong linkages to other industries, especially through domestic procurement. Contrary to the notion that there are no jobs in mining, in this small sample, employment related to the mining sector was very high in countries where linkages were strong, even before the multiplier and fiscal expenditure impacts were accounted for. Cooperation between the public and private sectors seemed essential to increasing such linkages. In addition, mining firms often made substantial contributions to local and regional development, at times due to legal requirements but often not. All five countries have either relatively high HDIs (compared with neighboring countries) or strongly improving HDIs.
Gender-Sensitive Approaches for the Extractive Industry in Peru : Improving the Impact on Women in Poverty and Their Families - Guide for Improving Practice
2011-12, Ward, Bernie, Strongman, John, Eftimie, Adriana, Heller, Katherine
In the companion report to this guide, gender-sensitive approaches to the extractive industry in Peru: improving impacts on women in poverty and their families, ward and strongman present solid, evidence-based arguments leading to the conclusion that Extractive Industry (EI) companies could significantly improve their sustainable development impact on women and families by making some practical and simple changes in their working practices. The report also provides extensive evidence of weaknesses in company and government policies and practices that contribute to a previously under recognized issue: men are capturing more of the benefits of EI projects, which are not necessarily reaching the wider family; while women and children experience more of the risks that arise from EI projects.
Mineral Resource Tenders and Mining Infrastructure Projects Guiding Principles
2011-09, Stanley, Michael, Mikhaylova, Ekaterina
Numerous recent changes in the mining industry have led governments to an increased interest in the tender process as a means of awarding mineral rights. High demand and high mineral prices driven by rapid economic growth in countries such as Brazil, China, and India, and the emergence of new global companies in these countries, have resulted in increased competition to obtain access to mineral resources worldwide. The two parts of this paper, the guidance/good practices and the case study, are presented together even though they do not directly draw on each other's conclusions. Both examine guiding principles and good practices for governments to use in attracting mineral investments. Although it is noted by the authors that the Aynak tender was not a perfect process, occurring as it did in a difficult environment with a deficient in-country capacity and myriad investment challenges, it is a relevant example of what is involved and what must be considered by a government in the process and content of a tender. The paper is expected to motivate long-term strategic thinking among decision makers in mineral-rich countries on ways to begin mine development with the end in mind. Its intention is not to prescribe a set of actions, but rather to inform possible ways of maximizing the local content from mining projects which will need to be adjusted in each unique case.
Innovative Approaches for Multi-Stakeholder Engagement in the Extractive Industries
2013-06, Sheldon, Christopher Gilbert, Zarzar Casis, Alonso, Caspary, Georg, Seiler, Verena, Ruiz Mier, Fernando
Extractive industries (oil, gas, and mining) have the potential to generate significant wealth for developing countries and to serve as important catalysts for growth. They generate large revenues-through royalties, taxation, and exports-and create employment. In some cases, however, resource wealth is associated with political turmoil, deteriorating standards of living, civil conflict, and elite capture. The management's response to the Extractive Industries Review (EIR) and accompanying evaluations signaled a critical turning point in the World Bank Group's (WBG's) engagement in the sector, which had hitherto focused primarily on exploration and development activities, sector policy reform, and commercialization of state-owned enterprises. This publication presents four of the finalist case studies, selected on the basis of project: 1) scalability; 2) replicability; 3) innovation; and 4) level of multi-stakeholder collaboration. In an effort to better document and showcase the variety of ways in which country teams are working with different actors on the often sensitive topic of good governance in the oil, gas, and mining sectors, the World Bank Institute and the World Bank Oil, Gas and Mining Unit (SEGOM) initiated an internal case story competition in 2011.
The Role of Liquefied Petroleum Gas in Reducing Energy Poverty
2011-12, Kojima, Masami
Increasing household use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is one of several pathways to meet the goal of universal access to clean cooking and heating solutions by 2030, as stated in the United Nations' Sustainable Energy for All Initiative. This study examined factors affecting household use of LPG, the state of LPG markets in developing countries, and measures to enable more households to shift away from solid fuels to LPG. The study is based on three separate but complementary analyses of factors affecting LPG use in developing countries: (1) econometric analysis of national household expenditure surveys in 10 developing countries that assessed the factors influencing LPG selection and consumption; (2) examination of LPG markets in 20 developing countries, including their regulatory frameworks, pricing and other policies, supply infrastructure, cylinder management, amount of information available to the public, and activities designed to promote household use of LPG; and (3) data from households in 110 developing countries about energy choices related to cooking, with information on energy choice by wealth quintile available in 63 of them.
Sharing Mining Benefits in Developing Countries
2011-06, Wall, Elizabeth, Pelon, Remi
This publication examines the role of foundations, trusts, and funds (FTFs) in delivering benefits derived from mining projects in the developing world. Chapter two addresses the necessity of sharing benefits from mining projects and identifies the situations under which a dedicated instrument such as an FTF can support that process. Chapter three reveals both the diversity and similarities of FTFs by reviewing six key attributes: their programming approach; their financing structure; their geographic focus; the extent of community participation in governance; the influence of the mining company on FTF operations; and the influence of the government on the FTF. Chapter four identifies key conditions for success and areas of leading practice based on experience with mining FTFs globally and drawing on specific cases in Namibia, Papua New Guinea, Peru, and South Africa.