Mineral Resources and Development

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This series aggregates and presents the World Bank`s knowledge on oil, gas, and mining in an accessible format. It is meant to assist knowledge sharing and trigger policy dialogue on topics relevant to managing natural resource wealth sustainably and responsibly. The series is produced by the Extractive Industries Unit of the World Bank. The unit serves as a global technical adviser that supports sustainable development by building capacity and providing extractive industry sector-related advisory services to resource-rich developing countries.

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Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
  • Publication
    Implementing EITI at the Sub National Level : Emerging Experience and Operational Framework
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2011-10) Aguilar, Javier; Seiler, Verena
    The fundamental rationale behind Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) is that increased transparency and knowledge of revenues from the extractive industries will empower citizens and institutions to hold governments accountable. By implementing EITI at the sub national level, countries could reduce opportunities for mismanagement or diversion of funds from sustainable development purposes, especially for prominent oil, gas, or mining regions. It is also an effective way of strengthening EITI local ownership among stakeholders. This report presents a preliminary analysis of emerging experiences in EITI countries implementing sub national EITI. Six countries have been selected as case studies: Ghana, Indonesia, Mongolia, Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and Peru. Based on these experiences, the report proposes a common operational framework for implementing EITI at the sub national level, laying the ground for further practical guidelines on deepening or strengthening the sub national plans or activities of implementing countries.
  • Publication
    Mineral Resource Tenders and Mining Infrastructure Projects Guiding Principles
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2011-09) Stanley, Michael; Mikhaylova, Ekaterina
    Numerous recent changes in the mining industry have led governments to an increased interest in the tender process as a means of awarding mineral rights. High demand and high mineral prices driven by rapid economic growth in countries such as Brazil, China, and India, and the emergence of new global companies in these countries, have resulted in increased competition to obtain access to mineral resources worldwide. The two parts of this paper, the guidance/good practices and the case study, are presented together even though they do not directly draw on each other's conclusions. Both examine guiding principles and good practices for governments to use in attracting mineral investments. Although it is noted by the authors that the Aynak tender was not a perfect process, occurring as it did in a difficult environment with a deficient in-country capacity and myriad investment challenges, it is a relevant example of what is involved and what must be considered by a government in the process and content of a tender. The paper is expected to motivate long-term strategic thinking among decision makers in mineral-rich countries on ways to begin mine development with the end in mind. Its intention is not to prescribe a set of actions, but rather to inform possible ways of maximizing the local content from mining projects which will need to be adjusted in each unique case.
  • Publication
    Toward Strengthened EITI Reporting : Summary Report and Recommendations
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2010-01) Ravat, Anwar; Ufer, Andre
    This document draws on Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) country implementation experience and contains the summary report and recommendations of a consultation process. The goal of the consultation process was to examine and recommend ways to strengthen EITI reporting by building on existing EITI policy guidance, while streamlining the reports and promoting qualitative improvements in disclosure within them. Accordingly, the recommendations in this document are addressed to the EITI International Secretariat and through it, to the EITI Board, as well as stakeholders in EITI-implementing countries.
  • Publication
    Engagement with Civil Society : An EITI Implementation Case Study
    (Washington, DC, 2009-11) World Bank
    Within the World Bank Group (WBG), the Oil, Gas, and Mining Policy Division (COCPO) is responsible for policy and advisory services in the oil, gas, and mining sectors, including World Bank lending. The unit also manages WBG participation in a number of donor-funded global programs and partnerships, including the Multi-Donor Trust Fund (MDTF) for the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). The main finding of this paper is that the direct support to civil society organization (CSO) through the Development Grant Facility (DGF) mechanism (July 2005 to June 2008) was well received and met key program objectives. In particular, DGF funding catalyzed the EITI in countries by helping strengthen CSO ability to play their role in the initiative. Working closely with the Revenue Watch Institute (RWI) during the later part of the DGF grant cycle helped COCPO build partnerships with CSO. The CSO also found the strategic nature of the DGF interventions to be positive, given that the grants allowed them to carry out a broad range of activities (advocacy, research, capacity building, and communications) around the sensitive topic of extractive industries and EITI.
  • Publication
    Financial Surety : Guidelines for the Implementation of Financial Surety for Mine Closure
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2009-06) Sassoon, Meredith
    It is now accepted practice that when a company relinquishes a mining title, whether for an exploration or mining site, it is responsible for carrying out the rehabilitation of that site prior to departure. To ensure this is the case, most jurisdictions now require some form of closure plan or rehabilitation program to be submitted to the regulatory authority prior to the start of any work on the site. It is an increasingly common requirement for the closure plan to contain details of the estimated cost of rehabilitation and for a financial surety to be established at the same time. This report aims to provide governments with the information they need to make their own informed decisions. It is based on a review of existing financial surety systems in a number of countries. Questionnaires were sent out to a total of fourteen regulatory authorities; of these, nine provided sufficient detail about their existing financial surety systems to be included as full case studies. These are presented in the section case studies along with a summary of the latest European Union (EU) waste directives. Except where otherwise stated, the financial surety applies to all stages of a mining project, regardless of size. The purpose of the financial surety is to ensure that there will be sufficient funds to pay for site rehabilitation and post closure monitoring and maintenance at any stage in the life of the project, including early or temporary closure. The main aim of site rehabilitation is to reduce the risk of pollution, restore the land and landscape for an appropriate use, improve the aesthetics of the area, and prevent any subsequent degradation. The extent and cost of final site rehabilitation can be reduced if the site is rehabilitated even as it is being mined, so that the rate of restoration is similar to the rate of exploration or exploitation. This ideal is not often achieved, however; the majority of rehabilitation usually takes place once work on the lease has ceased.
  • Publication
    Extractive Industries Value Chain : A Comprehensive Integrated Approach to Developing Extractive Industries
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2009-03) Mayorga Alba, Eleodoro
    Proper stewardship of revenue from the oil, gas, and mining industries has tremendous potential to lift people out of poverty and contribute to sustainable development. These industries create jobs directly and indirectly, transfer technologies and knowledge, and generate significant income. These benefits provide governments with a financial base for infrastructure development and social service delivery. The extractive industries, and the petroleum sector in particular, are known for generating high economic rent the difference between the value and cost of production and the government's share of this rent can be very large in times of high commodity prices, as in the last several years. The Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) seeks to help resource-rich countries maximize the development gains from the exploitation of their oil, gas, and mineral resources by encouraging greater EI revenue transparency. Through the verification and full publication of payments made by companies and revenues from oil, gas, and mining received by governments, the EITI helps to safeguard against corruption and provides a powerful illustration of voluntary engagement of governments, industry, civil society and other stakeholders to establish a locally implemented global standard. This paper describes steps to improve EI revenue management, transparency, and accountability at each link of the value chain.