Mineral Resources and Development

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This series aggregates and presents the World Bank`s knowledge on oil, gas, and mining in an accessible format. It is meant to assist knowledge sharing and trigger policy dialogue on topics relevant to managing natural resource wealth sustainably and responsibly. The series is produced by the Extractive Industries Unit of the World Bank. The unit serves as a global technical adviser that supports sustainable development by building capacity and providing extractive industry sector-related advisory services to resource-rich developing countries.

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  • Publication
    Overview of State Ownership in the Global Minerals Industry : Long Term Trends and Future
    (Washington, DC, 2011) World Bank
    This study builds on a previous study from the raw materials group, a Sweden-based minerals consultancy, originally commissioned by the World Bank in 2008. The trend toward more state engagement in the mining industry as noted in the 2008 study has continued, based on more recent developments. This study includes an expanded section on the new forms of state control which are found in Africa and also in Russia, China, India, and other emerging economies. It lays out the possible political implications of these trends and draws lessons from previous periods of increasing state ownership, including how to avoid previous mistakes. Various metals and the history of nationalization in a number of countries are analyzed as are the possible factors influencing the decision to nationalize, such as the sector's strategic importance and the need to control it. China's role in investing in Africa is discussed noting the issues concerning negotiation strategies, looking at the history of deals made in Sub-Saharan Africa. State ownership is defined in detail in appendix one of this document. A consolidated list of state ownership in mining of selected minerals and mineral refining on which the study is based is presented in appendix two.